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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the subjects

From: Hearing impairment and cognitive function among a community-dwelling population in Japan

  Total, n = 846 Hearing impairment ANOVA P value
   None (-24 dB), n = 527 Mild (25-39 dB), n = 265 Moderate to severe (-40 dB), n = 54  
Age 63.9 ± 8.3 61.3 ± 7.4 67.3 ± 7.9a 72.6 ± 6.7a < 0.001
Amount of education 10.8 ± 2.2 11.3 ± 2.0 10.1 ± 2.2a 9.1 ± 2.2a < 0.001
MMSE score 27.8 ± 2.6 28.3 ± 2.1 27.1 ± 2.8a 25.6 ± 3.5a < 0.001
CES-D score 9.7 ± 6.1 9.5 ± 6.1 10.0 ± 6.3 10.0 ± 5.3 0.536
Apathy scale score 13.9 ± 6.3 13.4 ± 6.2 14.6 ± 6.5a 15.2 ± 6.4b < 0.05
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD.
  2. aIndicates a significant difference (P < 0.05) from no hearing impairment group.
  3. bIndicates a statistical trend with no hearing impairment group (P < 0.10).
  4. ANOVA = analysis of variance; CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression scale; MMSE = Mini-Mental State Examination.