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Table 5 Serum cytokine concentrations in 65 perimenopausal women subdivided into five groups according to the presence and severity of hot flashes (Menopause Rating Scale)

From: The role of cytokines and hot flashes in perimenopausal depression

Cytokine Hot flashes P value, Kruskal-Wallis
  Without (n = 8) Mild (n = 16) Moderate (n = 11) Severe (n = 20) Very severe (n = 10)  
TNFα 8.67 (3.84 to 13.50) 4.47 (1.84 to 7.35) 5.42 (3.49 to 7.35) 5.82 (4.08 to 9.23) 11.15 (3.01 to 21.90) 0.495, NS
IL-6 22.10 1.19 (0.95 to 1.44) 2.42 (1.13 to 4.31) 3.02 (1.26 to 6.96) 2.11 (1.50 to 2.95) 0.456, NS
IL-10 8.43 (3.97 to 12.90) 1.91 6.57 (2.40 to 12.60) 3.48 (1.08 to 10.20) 5.45 1.31 to 12.00) 0.332, NS
  1. The results of cytokines are expressed as medians (10% to 90%). Unit of serum cytokine concentration is pg/ml.
  2. IL = interleukin; NS = not significant; TNF = tumor necrosis factor.