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Table 2 Long-term trauma-related stress reaction, psychological distress, and anxiety in mothers following preterm birth

From: Long-term risk of mental health problems in women experiencing preterm birth: a longitudinal study of 29 mothers

  N Means (SD) Estimated marginal means Standard error p value by time
IES total (0–75)      
  T0 29 19.7 (10.8) 19.7 (15.5, 23.8) a 2.1 p < 0.001
  T1 27 13.7 (11.5) 13.0 (8.8, 17.3) b 2.1  
  T2 27 11.9 (9.7) 11.2 (7.0, 15.5) b 2.1  
  T3 26 10.2 (11.9) 10.1 (5.8, 14.4) b 2.1  
GHQ Likert (0–90)      
  T0 29 40.0 (15.4) 39.9 (34.4, 45.5) a 2.8 p < 0.001
  T1 27 30.3 (13.4) 29.9 (24.2, 35.6) b 2.9  
  T2 27 29.3 (17.1) 28.9 (23.2, 34.7) b 2.9  
  T3 26 24.2 (13.9) 23.7 (17.9, 29.5) b 2.9  
GHQ case (0–30)      
  T0 29 12.8 (7.5) 12.8 (10.1, 15.4) a 1.3 p < 0.001
  T1 27 7.7 (6.6) 7.5 (4.8, 10.2) b 1.4  
  T2 27 6.2 (7.7) 5.9 (3.2, 8.6) b 1.4  
  T3 26 4.0 (6.4) 3.7 (0.9, 6.4) b 1.4  
STAI-X1 (0–40)a      
  T0 29 21.5 (2.8) 21.5 (20.5, 22.4) a 0.5 p = 0.001
  T1 27 23.8 (2.7) 23.8 (22.8, 24.7) b 0.5  
  T2 27 23.3 (2.3) 23.3 (22.4, 24.3) b 0.5  
  T3 26 22.8 (1.8) 22.9 (21.9, 23.8) ab 0.5  
  1. Means (SD) and estimated marginal means (95% confidence intervals) with standard errors from linear mixed model statistical analysis of the IES, GHQ and STAI-X1 at 2 weeks after birth (T0), 2 weeks post-discharge from hospital (T1), infant's 6-month post-term age (T3) and infant's 18-month post-term age (T4). Same letter of estimated marginal means within each instrument at different observation times indicates that the estimates are not statistically different at p < 0.05 from each other. For example, for three given estimates with a, ab and b, the first a is only significantly different from the third b, and the middle one ab is not significantly different from the others (a or b). aTen-question version of STAI-X1.