
N

Means (SD)

Estimated marginal means

Standard error

p value by time


IES total (0–75)
     
T_{0}

29

19.7 (10.8)

19.7 (15.5, 23.8) a

2.1

p < 0.001

T_{1}

27

13.7 (11.5)

13.0 (8.8, 17.3) b

2.1
 
T_{2}

27

11.9 (9.7)

11.2 (7.0, 15.5) b

2.1
 
T_{3}

26

10.2 (11.9)

10.1 (5.8, 14.4) b

2.1
 
GHQ Likert (0–90)
     
T_{0}

29

40.0 (15.4)

39.9 (34.4, 45.5) a

2.8

p < 0.001

T_{1}

27

30.3 (13.4)

29.9 (24.2, 35.6) b

2.9
 
T_{2}

27

29.3 (17.1)

28.9 (23.2, 34.7) b

2.9
 
T_{3}

26

24.2 (13.9)

23.7 (17.9, 29.5) b

2.9
 
GHQ case (0–30)
     
T_{0}

29

12.8 (7.5)

12.8 (10.1, 15.4) a

1.3

p < 0.001

T_{1}

27

7.7 (6.6)

7.5 (4.8, 10.2) b

1.4
 
T_{2}

27

6.2 (7.7)

5.9 (3.2, 8.6) b

1.4
 
T_{3}

26

4.0 (6.4)

3.7 (0.9, 6.4) b

1.4
 
STAIX1 (0–40)^{a}
     
T_{0}

29

21.5 (2.8)

21.5 (20.5, 22.4) a

0.5

p = 0.001

T_{1}

27

23.8 (2.7)

23.8 (22.8, 24.7) b

0.5
 
T_{2}

27

23.3 (2.3)

23.3 (22.4, 24.3) b

0.5
 
T_{3}

26

22.8 (1.8)

22.9 (21.9, 23.8) ab

0.5
 
 Means (SD) and estimated marginal means (95% confidence intervals) with standard errors from linear mixed model statistical analysis of the IES, GHQ and STAIX1 at 2 weeks after birth (T0), 2 weeks postdischarge from hospital (T1), infant's 6month postterm age (T3) and infant's 18month postterm age (T4). Same letter of estimated marginal means within each instrument at different observation times indicates that the estimates are not statistically different at p < 0.05 from each other. For example, for three given estimates with a, ab and b, the first a is only significantly different from the third b, and the middle one ab is not significantly different from the others (a or b). ^{a}Tenquestion version of STAIX1.