Effects of handling on spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze following an acute restraint stress. A. Mean escape latencies-Learning: handled animals took less time to find the submerged platform during the 8 learning trials compared to the non handled (p = 0.05, one way ANOVA with repeated measures). Values represent mean escape latencies ± S.E.M.B. Memory: handled animals spent more time in the target and less in the opposing quadrant compared to the non handled (p = 0.024, one way ANOVA with repeated measures). Values represent the mean time spent in each quadrant ± S.E.M.