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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and findings of serum amino acids (one-way ANOVA)

From: Serum glutamine, set-shifting ability and anorexia nervosa

  AN (n = 27) ANRec (n = 18) HC (n = 28) F df P value
Age, years 27.7 ± 10.6 32.2 ± 11.1 26.9 ± 5.8 2.0 2, 70 0.14
Education, years 16.9 ± 3.2 17.0 ± 2.8 18.1 ± 2.1 1.5 2, 66 0.23
Duration, years 10.0 ± 10.6 6.6 ± 6.2 NA 13.7 2, 69 0.00
Age of onset, years 17.0 ± 4.4 18.4 ± 6.4 NA 152.7 2, 69 0.00
Current BMI, kg/m2 15.4 ± 1.6a**b** 19.8 ± 1.1b**c** 22.3 ± 2.5 85.6 2, 68 0.00
Lowest BMI, kg/m2 13.1 ± 1.6a** 14.2 ± 2.0c** 21.0 ± 2.4 111.2 2, 65 0.00
EDEQ R 4.3 ± 3.7a**b** 0.8 ± 0.9b** 0.6 ± 1.0 20.0 2, 68 0.00
EDEQ E 3.3 ± 1.5a**b** 0.4 ± 0.4b** 0.2 ± 0.2 86.9 2, 68 0.00
EDEQ W 4.1 ± 1.7a**b** 1.0 ± 0.9b** 0.5 ± 0.6 69.8 2, 68 0.00
EDEQ S 4.6 ± 1.6a**b** 1.5 ± 0.9b** 0.9 ± 0.7 80.2 2, 68 0.00
EDEQ G 3.9 ± 1.7a**b** 1.0 ± 0.8b** 0.5 ± 0.5 65.7 2, 67 0.00
MOCI 10.1 ± 6.0a** 8.7 ± 4.2c** 3.7 ± 2.8 14.6 2, 68 0.00
HADS anxiety 14.0 ± 4.4a**b** 8.7 ± 2.8b**c** 4.4 ± 3.3 45.9 2, 66 0.00
HADS depression 9.3 ± 5.5a**b** 3.4 ± 2.4b** 1.5 ± 2.6 28.7 2, 66 0.00
Serum Glu, μM 64.7 ± 32.3 45.0 ± 29.6 54.7 ± 23.1 2.7 2, 70 0.08
Serum Gln, μM 1,310.2 ± 265.6a** 1,159.0 ± 236.3 1,102.9 ± 152.7 6.3 2, 70 0.00
Serum glycine, M 294.8 ± 78.2 280.9 ± 82.9 255.1 ± 58.3 2.1 2, 70 0.13
Ratio of Glu/Gln 0.064 ± 0.065 0.042 ± 0.034 0.052 ± 0.025 1.3 2, 70 0.28
Serum d-serine, μM 2.2 ± 0.8 2.2 ± 0.8 1.9 ± 0.5 1.6 2, 70 0.21
Serum l-serine, μM 135.6 ± 53.7 158.4 ± 72.7 117.7 ± 60.9 2.4 2, 70 0.10
  1. Values shown are mean ± SD; *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01.
  2. aComparisons between AN and HC; bcomparisons between AN and ANRec; ccomparisons between ANRec and HC.
  3. AN = anorexia nervosa; ANOVA = analysis of variance; ANRec = recovered from anorexia nervosa; BMI = body mass index; df = degrees of freedom; EDEQ R = Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Restraint Subscale; EDEQ E = Eating Concern Subscale; EDEQ W = Weight Concern Subscale; EDEQ S = Shape Concern Subscale; EDEQ G = Global Scale; Glu = Glutamate; Gln = Glutamine; HADS = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HC = healthy controls; MOCI = Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory.