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Table 2 Studies involving autism and histamine

From: Histaminergic system in brain disorders: lessons from the translational approach and future perspectives

Year Author Number of patients Number of controls Main results
1972 Neville et al. 7 - Elevated plasma histidine and low skin histidase levels [107].
1979 Kotsopoulos and Kutty 1 - Patient with autism presented histidine blood levels seven times higher than the upper normal values [108].
1988 Launay et al. 22 22 Histamine levels in urine and whole blood or plasma of patients with autism did not differ from age- and sex-matched controls [109].
1999 Rossi et al. 25 - Niaprazine (H1R antagonist) showed a positive effect on hyperkinesias, unstable attention, resistance to change and frustration, mild anxiety signs, hetero-aggressiveness, and sleep disorders [110].
2001 Linday et al. 9 - Behavioral improvement in children treated with Famotidine (H2R antagonist) [57].
2010 Rosales-Reynoso et al. 10 10 Downregulation of H3R in patients with Fragile X syndrome, subjects that usually meet diagnostic criteria for autism [111].
2012 Ming et al. 48 53 Reduced urinary levels of histidine and other amino acids [112].
2013 Naushad et al. 138 138 When compared to normal controls, autistic children showed elevated levels of histidine (58 +/– 15 vs. 45 +/– 21 micromol/L) [113].