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Table 4 Health resources utilization and direct costs (€) by treatment group

From: Clinical and economic outcomes of adjunctive therapy with pregabalin or usual care in generalized anxiety disorder patients with partial response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

  Pregabalin Usual care p between groups
N= 486 N= 239  
Baseline Final Change (95% CI) Baseline Final Change (95% CI) Baseline Final a
Resources         
  Non-pharmacological treatmentb         
   Psychosocial therapy 0.1 (0.4) 0.1 (0.7) 0.07 (0.01, 0.13)* 0.1 (0.6) 0.1 (0.5) 0.01 (−0.06, 0.09) 0.122 0.226
   Cognitive-behavioral therapies 0.4 (1.0) 0.3 (1.0) 0.14 (0.00, 0.30) 0.3 (1.0) 0.5 (2.0) 0.20 (0.00, 0.41) 0.441 0.642
   Supportive groups 0.1 (0.4) 0.2 (0.9) 0.10 (0.01, 0.18)* 0.1 (0.7) 0.2 (0.9) 0.06 (−0.06, 0,18) 0.476 0.588
   Relaxation 0.5 (1.3) 0.6 (1.7) 0.09 (−0.06, 0.25) 0.5 (1.5) 0.7 (2.3) 0.13 (−0.09, 0.34) 0.639 0.792
  Number of medical visitsc         
   Primary care 11.9 (13.9) 2.4 (3.7) −9.0 (−9.5, −8.5)*** 10.4 (12.8) 2.7 (5.5) −8.3 (−9.0, −7.6)*** 0.015 0.100
   Emergency department 4.6 (8.0) 0.7 (7.6) −3.9 (−4.6, −3.2)*** 3.7 (6.9) 0.3 (0.8) −3.8 (−4.8, −2.7)*** 0.078 0.833
   Psychologist 3.0 (7.2) 1.8 (4.6) −1.0 (−1.5, −0.5)*** 2.8 (9.4) 2.4 (5.2) −0.9 (−1.6, −0.2)** 0.048 0.860
   Psychiatrist 5.9 (6.4) 3.9 (3.7) −1.3 (−1.7, −1.0)*** 3.9 (5.1) 3.0 (2.7) −1.9 (−2.4, −1.3)*** <0.001 0.113
   Total medical visits 25.4 (22.0) 8.7 (11.2) −15.2 (−16.3, −14.0)*** 20.7 (20.1) 7.6 (8.4) −14.9 (−16.6, −13.2)*** 0.001 0.754
  Number of hospitalizations 0.2 (0.9) 0.0 (0.1) −0.10 (−0.11, −0.09)*** 0.1 (0.6) 0.0 (0.1) −0.09 (−0.10, −0.08)*** 0.134 0.501
Costs (euros year 2009):         
  Total costs 2,177 (1,839) 1,565 (1,555) −478 (−619, −338)*** 1,724 (2,059) 1,406 (1,611) −446 (−635, −257)*** <0.001 0.777
  Drugs 254 (304) 534 (281) 296 (272, 319)*** 204 (256) 241 (228) 27 (−5, 58) 0.001 <0.001
  Non-pharmacological treatment 202 (359) 274 (577) 86 (23, 148)** 191 (379) 282 (748) 88 (3, 172)* 0.115 0.969
  Medical visits 1,210 (1,253) 474 (1,002) −660 (−753, −567)*** 936 (1,136) 580 (893) −471 (−596, −345)*** <0.001 0.013
  Hospitalization 40 (254) 2 (21) −28 (−35, −21)*** 14 (149) 9 (109) −17 (−26, −8)** 0.134 0.056
  1. Values are expressed as mean (SD, standard deviation) or 95% confidence intervals (CI) unless otherwise stated.
  2. aComparison of the change from baseline between the two groups adjusted by baseline values and sex and age.
  3. bNumber of sessions per month.
  4. cIn a 6-month period.
  5. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 vs. baseline values.