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Table 2 Comparisons of nutrient intakes by food security status

From: Food insecurity in adults with mood disorders: prevalence estimates and associations with nutritional and psychological health

Measurement Nutrient intakes according to food insecurity statusa (median, IQRb) Nutrient intakes compared to Dietary Reference Intakes c and by food insecurity statusa
Food insecure (n = 36) Food secure (n = 61) Food insecure (n = 36) Food secure (n = 61)
Energy and macronutrients % > AMDR d (95% CI)
 Energy (kilocalories) 2,406 (1,907; 2,875) 2,541 (1,802; 3,182)
 Protein (% of calories) 14.0 (10.1; 18.4) 13.7 (9.4; 20.1) 5.5 (0.7–18.7) 0
 Carbohydrates (% of calories) 47.8 (41.3; 57.3)* 52.9 (48.5; 59.8) 0.2 (0.1–19.5)* 11.4 (4.7–22.2)
 Fibre (g) 21.5 (13.7; 29.4) 24.3 (15.3; 30.2)
 Fats (% of calories) 35.4 (29.2; 45.0)* 34.2 (25.9; 38.9) 55.6 (38.1–72.1)* 29.5 (18.5–42.6)
  % < EAR e (95% CI)
Protein (g/kg) 19.4 (6.5–32.4)* 4.9 (0.5–10.3)
Vitamins
 Vitamin B6 or pyridoxine (mg) 1.5 (1.0; 2.0) 1.5 (1.2; 2.2) 30.6 (16.3–48.1) 21.3 (11.9–33.7)
 Vitamin B9 or folate (dietary folate equivalents)f 74.2 (39.7; 204.4) 114.5 (55.0; 225.4) 83.3 (67.2–93.6)* 52.5 (39.3–65.4)
 Vitamin B12 or cobalamin (μg) 3.3 (1.9; 4.6) 3.5 (1.9; 5.1) 27.8 (14.2–45.2) 26.2 (15.8–39.1)
 Vitamin C (mg) 80.5 (51.8; 180.7)* 128.8 (70.2; 216.7) 27.8 (14.2–45.2) 21.3 (11.9–33.7)
Trace minerals
 Iron (mg) 14.4 (10.2; 18.3) 16.0 (12.0; 23.8) 13.9 (4.7–29.5) 6.6 (1.8–15.9)
 Zinc (mg) 8.9 (5.8; 11.8) 8.8 (6.4; 12.8) 52.8 (35.5–69.6)* 31.1 (19.9–42.3)
  1. p < 0.05.
  2. aFood-insecure or secure based on respondents who answered yes to either of the following questions: (1) in the past 12 months did you worry that there would not be enough to eat because of lack of money; or (2) in the past 12 months did you not have enough food to eat because of lack of; food-secure based on respondents who answered no to both questions.
  3. bInterquartile range.
  4. cReference values that are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people.
  5. dAdequate macronutrient distribution ranges.
  6. eEstimated average requirement.
  7. fDietary folate equivalents (DFE): values that adjust for the differences in absorption of food folate and synthetic folic acid; 1 mcg of DFE = 0.6 mcg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement taken with a meal = 1 mcg food folate; 0.5 mcg of folic acid from a supplement taken on an empty stomach.