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Table 2 Disorders of information processing in depression: frequent cognitive distortions [36]

From: The role of cognitive dysfunction in the symptoms and remission from depression

Cognitive distortions and logical fallacies
Dichotomous/all or nothing thinking Absolute and black-and white thinking, refusing anything which includes any minor imperfections
Overgeneralisation Generalization based on a single experience of failure, perceiving a single negative event as an endless series of failures
Negative filter/selective abstraction Designating the whole situation as negative based on a single negative detail, disproportionate attention to negative details and ignorance for positives
Discounting positives Successes, accomplishments and positive characteristics do not count
Jumping to conclusions Negative conclusions in the absence of evidence; supposing without any basis that others will react in a negative way, the person continuously expects things to end badly
Magnification/minimization Arbitrary and disproportionate maximization of own faults and negative events, arbitrary and disproportionate minimization of good characteristics or events
Emotional reasoning/logic Reasoning based on emotions, treating negative emotions as facts, and drawing conclusions based on them
“Should” statements Formulating expectations as primary motives, criticizing self and others with should and must not statements
Labeling Identifying self with own mistakes, applying these labels instead of admitting and acknowledging own mistakes
Personalisation and blame Holding self responsible for something the person has no control over or something the person is not responsible for, or blaming others ignoring own role