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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample

From: Prevalence and risk factors for depression in women with multiple sclerosis: a study from Iran

  With depression (n = 91) Without depression (n = 125) OR (95 % CI)a P
No. (%) No. (%)
Age (years)
 ≤35 45 (49.5) 72 (53.3) 1.0 (ref.)  
 >35 46 (50.5) 63 (46.7) 1.16 (0.68–1.98) 0.567
Education
 Higher 21 (23.1) 48 (35.6) 1.0 (ref.)  
 Primary/secondary 70 (76.9) 87 (64.4) 1.83 (1.00-3.35) 0.046
Employment status
 Employed 5 (5.5) 103 (76.3) 1.0 (ref.)  
 House wife 86 (94.5) 32 (23.7) 5.34 (1.99–14.31) <0.001
Age at onset of disease (mean/SD) 28.75 (7.71) 30.02 (7.60) 0.97 (0.94–1.01) 0.225
Disease duration (years)
 0–8 62 (68.1) 107 (79.3) 1.0 (ref.)  
 ≥ 9 29 (31.9) 28 (20.7) 1.78 (0.97-3.27) 0.050
Disease course
 RRMS 66 (72.5) 103 (76.3) 1.0 (ref.)  
 PPMS and SPMS 25 (27.5) 32 (23.7) 0.82 (0.44–1.50) 0.522
EDSS score
 0–4.5 52 (57.1) 113 (83.7) 1.0 (ref.)  
 5–8 39 (42.9) 22 (16.2) 3.85 (2.07–7.14) < 0.001
Received treatment for depression
 Yes 7 (7.7) 15b (11.1) 1.0 (ref.)  
 No 84 (92.3) 120 (88.9) 0.66 (0.26–1.70) 0.398
  1. aDerived from univariate logistic regression analysis
  2. bIn fact, these patients were indicated as ‘without depression’ based on cutoff value of the Beck Depression Inventory; otherwise clinicians recognized these patients as having depression and thus received treatment