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Table 3 Comparison and distribution of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores of poor-sleep-quality participants in different areas (N = 354)

From: Current status of sleep quality in Taiwan: a nationwide walk-in survey

  Northern (N = 195) Middle (N = 289) Southern (N = 228) Eastern (N = 48) P value Total (N = 760)
Number 113 132 91 18 <0.001 § 354
n, % 57.9 % 45.7 % 39.9 % 37.5 %   46.6 %
Age (years)a      <0.001 §  
 Mean ± SD 44.4 ± 10.8 53.5 ± 14.3 62.1 ± 15.2 67.8 ± 9.1   53.5 ± 15.3
Gender (n, %)      <0.001 §  
 Men 6 (5.4) 37 (29.6) 13 (14.4) 7 (38.9)   63 (40.1)
 Women 104 (94.6) 88 (70.4) 77 (85.6) 11 (61.1)   280 (48.4)
Sleep duration (hours)b      0.002 §  
 Mean ± SD 5.1 ± 1.3 5.7 ± 1.2 5.6 ± 1.7 5.8 ± 1.7   5.5 ± 1.4
Hypnotics use (days/4 weeks)      <0.001 §  
 No use 103 (91.2) 105 (79.5) 63 (69.2) 6 (33.3)   277 (78.2)
 1–2 3 (2.6) 8 (6.1) 11 (12.1) 1 (5.6)   23 (6.5)
 ≥3 7 (6.2) 19 (14.4) 17 (18.7) 11 (61.1)   54 (15.3)
PSQI score#      0.149  
 Mean ± SD 9.2 ± 2.8 8.8 ± 2.7 9.2 ± 3.2 10.4 ± 3.6   9.1 ± 2.9
Subscale score: mean ± SD       
 Subjective sleep quality 1.6 ± 0.6 1.5 ± 0.8 1.4 ± 0.9 1.8 ± 0.9 0.074 1.5 ± 0.8
 Sleep latency 1.5 ± 0.8 1.7 ± 0.8 2.0 ± 0.9 2.1 ± 1.0 <0.001 § 1.7 ± 0.9
 Sleep duration 2.1 ± 0.8 1.7 ± 0.9 1.7 ± 0.9 1.8 ± 1.0 <0.001 § 1.8 ± 0.9
 Habitual sleep efficiency 1.1 ± 1.1 1.0 ± 1.2 1.3 ± 1.3 0.8 ± 1.1 0.378 1.1 ± 1.2
 Sleep disturbances 1.4 ± 0.6 1.4 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 0.6 1.0 ± 0.3 0.041 § 1.3 ± 0.6
 Use of sleeping medication 0.3 ± 1.0 0.5 ± 1.1 0.7 ± 1.2 1.9 ± 1.5 <0.001 § 0.6 ± 1.2
 Daytime dysfunction 1.3 ± 0.9 1.0 ± 0.7 0.9 ± 0.8 1.0 ± 0.8 0.004 § 1.1 ± 0.8
  1. #PSQI score: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score
  2. § P value < 0.05
  3. aThe northern and middle areas are significantly different from other areas
  4. bThe northern area is significantly different from other areas