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Table 2 Cognitive function scores across study groups

From: Cognitive impairment in manic bipolar patients: important, understated, significant aspects

  Bipolar group N = 137 Control group N = 62 p
Verbal memory 40.53 ± 4.16 48.73 ± 3.02 <0.0001*
Working memory 18 (10–28) 27 (24–29) <0.0001**
Psychomotor speed 54 (42–74) 70 (64–72) <0.0001**
Verbal fluency 46.02 ± 9.52 66.27 ± 2.69 <0.0001*
Attention and speed of information processing 42 (30–58) 59.5 (54–63) <0.0001**
Executive function/reasoning and problem solving 13 (4–19) 21 (17–22) <0.0001**
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation for continuous parametric data and mean (range) for nonparametric continuous data
  2. NS no statistical significant (p ≥ 0.05)
  3. * Independent samples t test; ** Mann–Whitney U test