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Table 6 Cognitive function scores across bipolar patients with previous mainly manic and previous mainly depressive episodes

From: Cognitive impairment in manic bipolar patients: important, understated, significant aspects

  Previous episode polarity p
Mainly manic N = 96 Mainly depressive N = 41
Verbal memory 39.26 ± 4.00 43.49 ± 2.81 <0.0001*
Working memory 17 (10–28) 24 (11–27) <0.0001**
Psychomotor speed 54.09 ± 5.65 53.05 ± 6.63 NS*
Verbal fluency 43.5 (31–67) 50 (30–61) NS**
Attention and speed of information processing 42 (30–50) 44 (34–58) 0.010**
Executive function/reasoning and problem solving 12.17 ± 3.52 14.37 ± 2.58 <0.0001*
  1. Values are presented as mean ± SD for continuous parametric data, median (range) for continuous nonparametric data
  2. NS no statistical significant (p ≥ 0.05)
  3. * Kruskal–Wallis test; ** ANOVA