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Table 3 Impact of attachment, parenting, and ADHD symptoms on emotion processing and alexithymia in the extended ADHD group

From: Attachment, recalled parental rearing, and ADHD symptoms predict emotion processing and alexithymia in adults with ADHD

Dependent variable (emotion processing) Independent variablesa (attachment, parenting memories, ADHD symptoms, medication, axis-I/II disorders, sex, age, and education) β/t/p ANOVA/R 2
Acceptance of own emotions (EES) Secure (vs. anxious) in relation to mother (RASA) −0.32/−2.4/0.024 df = 9; F = 5.3; p < 0.001/R 2 = 0.65
Secure (vs. anxious) in relation to partner (RASA) 0.45/2.9/0.007
Depend. (vs. independ.) in relation to partner (RASA) −0.90/−2.3/0.027
Feeling comfortable with closeness and intimacy (AAS) −0.33/−2.4/0.026
Feeling comfortable depending on others (AAS) −0.27/2.1/0.049
Rejection and punishment by mother (QRPRB) −0.40/−2.6/0.015
Rejection and punishment by father (QRPRB) 0.28/2.1/0.046
Antidepressant medication −0.40/−3.0/0.005
Education −0.40/−2.9/0.007
Experiencing being flooded with emotions (EES) Secure (vs. anxious) in relation to mother (RASA) 0.29/2.1/0.040 df = 5; F = 6.4; p < 0.001/R 2 = 0.52
Depend. (vs. independ.) in relation to partner (RASA) −0.33/−2.4/0.022
Anxiety about rejection or abandonment (AAS) 0.55/3.9/0.001
Childhood ADHD symptoms (WURS-k) 0.32/2.4/0.021
Current inattentiveness (ADHD-SR) −0.29/−2.1/0.048
Experiencing emotion regulation (EES) Secure (vs. anxious) in relation to partner (RASA) 0.45/3.6/0.001 df = 5; F = 7.4; p < 0.001/R 2 = 0.55
Emotional warmth of mother (QRPRB) −0.27/−2.1/0.045
Current hyperactivity (ADHD-SR) −0.29/−2.1/0.042
Antidepressant medication −0.46/−3.4/0.002
Number of axis-II disorders 0.53/3.9/0.000
Experiencing self-control (EES) Feeling comfortable with closeness and intimacy (AAS) 0.30/2.0/0.050 df = 7; F = 3.8; p < 0.01/R 2 = 0.49
Anxiety about rejection or abandonment (AAS) −0.32/−1.9/0.068
Emotional warmth of mother (QRPRB) −0.50/−3.5/0.002
Childhood ADHD symptoms (WURS-k) −0.26/1.8/0.078
Current hyperactivity (ADHD-SR) −0.83/−2.1/0.011
Current ADHD symptomatology (total) (ADHD-SR) 0.64/2.0/0.055
Methylphenidate medication −0.42/−2.7/0.011
Alexithymia (TAS-20) Feeling comfortable with closeness and intimacy (AAS) 0.30/2.0/0.050 df = 2; F = 9.1; p < 0.01/R 2 = 0.36
Emotional warmth of mother (QRPRB) −0.50/−3.5/0.002
  1. aCollinearity statistics indicated that the independent variables did not explain each other (all variables with a tolerance >0.1 and a variance inflation factor <10)