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Table 2 Clinical characteristics according to pharmacotherapy

From: Pharmacotherapy and group cognitive behavioral therapy enhance follow-up treatment duration in gambling disorder patients

  No-pharmacotherapy (n = 477) Anticraving agent (n = 177) Antidepressants (n = 104) Statistical value p
Sex (male %) 450 (94.5) 175 (98.9) 92 (91.1) 9.20a 0.010
Age 40.40 ± 10.27 37.45 ± 8.04 39.58 ± 10.86 5.73b 0.003**
Age of onset 30.74 ± 8.92 27.87 ± 6.19 29.00 ± 8.56 8.10b <0.001**
With partner (or married) 307 (63.1) 113 (64.8) 53 (51) 6.52a 0.038
BDI 10.82 ± 10.66 15.00 ± 10.23 20.67 ± 11.81 6.94b 0.002**
BAI 16.75 ± 9.68 20.09 ± 9.24 26.60 ± 10.00 9.72b <0.001**
GSAS 12.88 ± 9.59 20.07 ± 11.83 16.88 ± 10.77 3.01b 0.056
Group CBT 68 (14.3) 39 (22) 14 (13.6) 6.23a 0.044
Participation in GA 106 (25.4) 54 (34.4) 26 (27.4) 4.59a 0.101
Follow-up duration (months) 5.53 ± 12.37 10.37 ± 14.61 17.56 ± 26.99 27.19 <0.001**
  1. BDI Beck Depression Inventory, BAI Beck Anxiety Inventory, GSAS Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale, CBT cognitive behavioral therapy, GA gamblers anonymous
  2. aPearson’s Chi-square test: Data are shown as the number of patients (%), statistical value = Pearson’s Chi square
  3. bOne-way analysis of variance (ANOVA): data are shown as mean ± standard deviation, statistical value = F
  4. ** p < 0.01