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Table 2 Occupational therapy (n = 46) vs. board games (n = 36): general linear model (significant interaction effects at baseline and after 3 weeks)

From: Antidepressive response of inpatients with major depression to adjuvant occupational therapy: a case–control study

Variable Subgroup GLM Means, differences (pre-post) and effect sizes
Within-subject effects (time) Between-subjects effects (group) Interaction (time × group) Occupational therapy Board game group
F p F p F p M pre (SD) M post (SD) Mpre-Mpost ES M pre (SD) M post (SD) Mpre-Mpost ES
BDI 12 Total 0.429 0.515 4.579 0.036 1.001 0.298 1.21 (0.87) 0.83 (0.74) 0.38 0.47 0.83 (0.75) 0.65 (0.65) 0.18 0.26
m 0.010 0.922 1.237 0.276 13.494 0.001 1.25 (0.90) 0.53 (0.61) 0.72 0.95 0.53 (0.70) 0.81 (0.75)
f 0.000 0.992 2.445 0.128 2.559 0.119 1.18 (0.86) 1.04 (0.76) 0.14 0.16 1.10 (0.70) 0.50 (0.51) 0.60 0.98
BDI 16 Total 0.003 0.954 0.769 0.376 4.983 0.029 1.63 (1.09) 1.30 (1.07) 0.33 0.31 1.90 (1.01) 1.06 (0.81) 0.84 0.92
m 0.000 0.991 3.057 0.092 1.047 0.315 1.50 (1.02) 1.16 (1.07) 0.34 0.32 2.00 (1.08) 1.13 (0.72) 0.87 0.97
f 0.006 0.937 0.006 0.938 1.607 0.214 1.75 (1.14) 1.41 (1.08) 0.34 0.31 1.82 (0.96) 1.00 (0.91) 0.82 0.87
BDI 22 Total 0.481 0.490 0.000 0.993 3.094 0.083 1.52 (1.16) 1.33 (1.12) 0.19 0.17 1.37 (1.20) 1.47 (1.16)
m 2.190 0.150 0.493 0.489 5.017 0.034 1.54 (1.06) 1.00 (1.00) 0.54 0.52 1.30 (1.13) 1.55 (1.13)
f 0.022 0.883 0.271 0.606 0.150 0.702 1.50 (1.26) 1.56 (1.16) 1.43 (1.29) 1.55 (1.29)
HAMA total Total 0.635 0.428 5.715 0.020 1.291 0.260 20.07 (7.06) 12.86 (6.73) 7.21 1.04 20.95 (6.75) 16.60 (8.78) 4.35 0.56
m 0.023 0.882 4.511 0.044 5.226 0.031 19.38 (7.56) 10.94 (5.07) 8.52 1.23 19.11 (5.61) 16.35 (5.78) 2.76 0.48
f 0.108 0.744 2.060 0.160 0.120 0.731 20.58 (6.75) 14.12 (7.45) 6.46 0.91 22.55 (7.34) 16.83 (11.07) 5.72 0.62
HAMA 6 Total 0.230 0.633 3.001 0.088 4.190 0.044 2.81 (0.64) 1.84 (0.97) 0.97 1.20 2.83 (0.71) 2.23 (0.81) 0.60 0.79
m 0.023 0.880 0.305 0.586 3.669 0.067 2.88 (0.45) 1.88 (0.86) 1.00 1.52 2.74 (0.56) 2.24 (0.66) 0.50 0.82
f 0.010 0.919 2.156 0.151 0.189 0.666 2.76 (0.75) 1.81 (1.06) 0.95 1.04 2.91 (0.87) 2.22 (0.94) 0.69 0.77
PSP C Total 0.000 0.991 1.309 0.256 1.908 0.171 1.20 (0.56) 1.16 (0.42) 0.04 0.08 1.36 (0.62) 1.17 (0.51) 0.19 0.33
m 0.835 0.368 0.283 0.599 0.013 0.911 1.33 (0.76) 1.21 (0.54) 0.12 0.18 1.35 (0.59) 1.22 (0.55) 0.13 0.36
f 1.400 0.245 3.341 0.076 5.213 0.029 1.10 (0.30) 1.12 (0.33) 1.36 (0.66) 1.11 (0.47) 0.25 0.44
  1. BDI 12: loss of interest
  2. BDI 16: disturbed sleep pattern
  3. BDI 22: loss of sexual interest
  4. HAMAtotal: total score
  5. HAMA 6: depressed mood
  6. PSP C: self-care
  7. GLM general linear model (controlled for age, IQ, axis-I/II comorbidity, number of psychoactive drugs and number of antidepressants), stratified for gender (m males, f females); M pre/post mean pre/post, SD standard deviation, Mpre-Mpost difference between re- and post-mean, ES effect size (Cohen’s d). BDI Beck Depression Inventory, HAMA Hamilton Anxiety Scale, PSP Personal and Social Performance Scale