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Table 1 Sociodemographic and illness-related data of voluntary and involuntary admissions, F0–G3: diagnostic groups according to ICD-10

From: Preventing involuntary admissions: special needs for distinct patient groups

  Variable Voluntary (N = 196,389), data in % Involuntary (N = 17,206), data in % Group comparison p value
Gender Male 57.6 58.0 \( \chi_{\left( 1 \right)}^{2} = 1.047 \) p = .306
Female 42.4 42.0
Age M (SD) 44.41 (17.04) 48.55 (19.52) t(19,561.444) = −26.877 p < .001
<18 0.1 0.1 \( \chi_{\left( 7 \right)}^{2} = 1263.41 \) p < .001
18–21 5.4 6.2
22–30 18.0 13.6
31–40 22.1 18.5
41–50 24.5 22.7
51–60 12.7 12.3
61–70 6.9 8.4
>70 10.2 18.1
Marital status Married 28.4 30.7 \( \chi_{\left( 2 \right)}^{2} = 195.049 \) p < .001
Single 71.6 69.3
Nationality German 95.1 94.0 \( \chi_{\left( 4 \right)}^{2} = 39.927 \) p < .001
Turkish 2.2 2.4
Polish 0.3 0.4
Italian 0.3 0.3
Other 2.1 2.8
Religion Roman-Catholic 49.6 54.2 Due to a high amount of missing data no statistics could be used  
Protestant 34.4 32.7
Muslim 3.9 3.1
Other 12.1 10.0
Month of admission (most frequent) 1 August: 8.7 July: 9.5 \( \chi_{{\left( {11} \right)}}^{2} = 88.221 \) p < .001
2 July: 8.6 August: 9.1
3 March: 8.6 June: 9.0
Time of day of admission Morning (8–12 a.m.) 48.0 16.2 \( \chi_{\left( 2 \right)}^{2} = 9704.74 \) p < .001
Afternoon (12 a.m.–4 p.m.) 27.2 26.3
Late afternoon and night (4 p.m.–8 a.m.) 24.8 57.5
Admission type Hospital doctor on call 13.7 33.5 \( \chi_{\left( 6 \right)}^{2} = 3449.047 \) p < .001
(Psychiatrist) 31.5 31.8
General practitioner 46.1 19.7
Other specialist 8.4 14.7
Service allocation General psychiatry 40.4 48.2 \( \chi_{\left( 3 \right)}^{2} = 2380.468 \) p < .001
Addiction psychiatry 41.3 28.0
Gerontopsychiatry 11.8 20.9
Other 6.5 3.0
Main diagnosis (ICD-10) F0 5.1 16.1 \( \chi_{{\left( {10} \right)}}^{2} = 7709.130 \) p < .001
F1 36.7 22.8
F2 14.7 30.5
F3 28.2 14.9
F4 3.1 2.8
F5 0.2 0.1
F6 5.2 6.8
F7 1.7 1.8
F8 0.0 0.0
F9 0.2 0.5
G3 2.2 3.4
Comorbidity Psychiatric 47.4 43.6 \( \chi_{{\left( {22} \right)}}^{2} = 1137.372 \) p < .001
Somatic 10.8 10.7 \( \chi_{{\left( {40} \right)}}^{2} = 208.934 \) p < .001
Duration of stay M (SD) 22.60 (23.795) 24.84 (28.480) t(19,367.606) = −10.005 p < .001
1 day 1.4 3.7 \( \chi_{\left( 8 \right)}^{2} = 5922.69 \) p < .001
2 days 5.0 10.0
2 weeks 42.1 34.0
6 weeks 36.4 34.2
≥7 weeks 15.1 18.2
Number of previous treatments M (SD) 7.61 (12.79) 5.84 (10.12) t(22,316.321) = 21.397 p < .001
1 24.5 33.5 \( \chi_{\left( 4 \right)}^{2} = 786.410 \) p < .001
2 16.2 16.3
3 11.0 10.4
4–10 29.6 25.7
>10 18.8 14.1