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Table 2 Psychosocial and clinical factors related to abuse among patients with bipolar disorder

From: Leveling and abuse among patients with bipolar disorder at psychiatric outpatient departments in Ethiopia

Characteristics Abuse Overall Chi-square (X 2) (P value)
Yes No
Duration of illness
 Less than a year 5 (3.2%) 15 (5.9%) 20 (4.9%) 5.06 (0.06)
 1–5 years 57 (36.8%) 117 (45.7%) 174 (42.3%)
 >5 years 93 (60%) 124 (48.4%) 217 (52.8%)
Age at onset of illness
 Before 18 years old 30 (19.4%) 38 (14.8%) 68 (16.5%) 6.74 (0.034)
 Between 18 and 24 years 69 (44.5%) 92 (36%) 161 (39.2%)
 After 24 years 56 (36.1%) 126 (49.2%) 182 (44.3%)
History of aggression
 Yes 141 (91%) 191 (74.6%) 332 (80.8%) 16.64 (0.00005)
 No 14 (9%) 65 (25.4%) 79 (19.2%)
Medication adherence
 Poor 51 (32.9%) 66 (25.8%) 117 (28.4%) 2.75 (0.25)
 Moderate 57 (36.8%) 111 (43.4%) 168 (40.9%)
 Good 47 (30.3%) 79 (30.8%) 126(30.7%)
Perceived stress
 Low 43 (27.7%) 75 (29.3%) 118 (28.7%) 0.48 (0.78)
 Moderate 34 (22%) 49 (19.1%) 83 (20.2%)
 High 78 (50.3%) 132 (51.6%) 210 (51.1%)
Comorbid illness
 Yes 35 (22.6%) 27 (10.5%) 62 (15.1%) 10.91 (0.001)
 No 120 (77.4%) 229 (89.5%) 349 (84.9%)
Social support
 Poor 63 (40.6%) 79 (30.9%) 142 (34.5%) 4.15 (0.13)
 Moderate 62 (40%) 122 (47.6%) 184 (44.8%)
 Strong 30 (19.4%) 55 (21.5%) 85 (20.7%)
Khat chewing
 Yes 33 (21.3%) 34 (13.3%) 67 (16.3%) 4.54 (0.03)
 No 122 (78.7%) 222 (86.7%) 344 (83.7%)
Tobacco use
 Yes 38 (24.5%) 39 (15.2%) 77 (18.7%) 5.46 (0.02)
 No 117 (75.5%) 217 (84.8%) 334 (81.3%)
Alcohol use
 Yes 52 (33.5%) 61 (23.8%) 113 (27.5%) 4.58 (0.03)
 No 103 (66.5%) 195 (76.2%) 298 (72.5%)