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Table 1 Summary of findings

From: Insulin-like growth factor-1: a possible marker for emotional and cognitive disturbances, and treatment effectiveness in major depressive disorder

  Type of study Measure Patient N Age
(Mean ± SD)
F
 %
Depression instrument MDD severity
(Mean ± SD)
IGF-1 in MDD vs controls Medication and its effects on IGF-1 levels
Bot et al. [35] Observational Plasma MDD/anxiety
HC
2112
602
n/a n/a n/a n/a ↑IGF-1 (p = 0.006) in AD-free individuals with current disorders;
↑IGF-1 (p = 0.09) in AD-free individuals with remitted disorders;
↓IGF-1 (p = 0.028) in AD users
Yes, not specified
Rosso et al. [36] Case–control Serum OCD
MDD
HC
40
37
43
38.7 ± 13.3
42.4 ± 11.9
42.3 ± 11.3
55.0
78.4
65.1
HAMD 6.5 ± 3.0
19.7 ± 2.6
No significant differences.
IGF-1 levels correlated to age of MDD onset (r = − 0.40, p = 0.014)
Yes, citalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline
No changes (p = 0.42)
Sharma et al. [37] A comprehensive review Serum/plasma MDD
HC
n/a n/a n/a n/a   IGF-1 levels in MDD vs controls were discrepant across studies n/a
Tu et al. [38] A meta-analysis and review Serum/plasma MDD/BD
HC
389
393
n/a n/a n/a   ↑(p < 0.001);
Inverse association with MDD duration (p   =   0.03);
IGF-1 may be a marker of cognition
Yes. No change in IGF-1 after Rx (p =  0.092)
Chigogora et al. [39] Longitudinal population-based Serum Cohort of adults ≥ 50 years 6017 65.7 55 CES-D8 n/a ↓ and ↑ levels of IGF-1 ↑DD risk;
Median levels of IGF-1 ↓DD risk
No
Van Varsseveld et al. [40] Longitudinal population-based Serum MDD
No DD
193
995
75.4 ± 6.5 50.3 CES-D n/a M: as compared to high concentrations, mid concentrations IGF-1 ↓DD probability (OR 0.35);
F: as compared to high concentrations, low concentrations ↑DD probability
(OR 2.66);
F after 3 year FW: as compared to high concentrations, mid concentrations ↓DD probability (OR 0.43)
Yes, not specified
Rusch et al. [41] Observational Plasma MDD/PTSD 44 33.3 0 QIDS-SR 13.0 The sleep improved group revealed significant ↓ in MDD (p = 0.005) and ↑IGF-1 (p = 0.009) Yes, not specified
Kopzak et al.
(2015) [42]
Case–control Serum MDD
HC
78
92
48.6 ± 13.9
48.1 ± 13.7
44.9
45.7
HAMD 26.4 ± 6.7 ↑ (p = 3.29E−04) Yes, not specified. IGF- 1 still ↑ after 6 weeks of Rx (p = 0.002)
Krogh et al. [43] Longitudinal parallel-group Serum MDD 79 41.3 ± 12.1 67.1 HAMD 19.0 ± 4.3 Aerobic exercise intervention did not ↑IGF-1 in MDD patients No
Sievers et al. [44] Population-based cross-sectional Serum West Pomerania Cohort 4079
(1246 DS)
50.0 ± 16.4 51 CID-S n/a F: ↓IGF-1 ↑DD probability (OR 2.70);
M: ↑IGF-1 ↑DD probability (OR 3.26)
No
Lin et al. [45] Cross-sectional Plasma Adults aged ≥ 50 years 94 60.7 ± 8.4 58.5 GDS n/a Among older adults with ↓IGF-1 levels: ↑depressive symptoms scores were associated with ↓ of delayed recall and recognition Yes, not specified
Emeny et al. [46] Population-based
cross-sectional
Serum KORA-age cohort study 144 DS
841 no DS
M:75.4
F:75.7
50.0 GDS n/a F: ↑IGF-1 ↑MDD probability (p = 0.045) No
Szczęsny et al. [17] A narrative review Serum/plasma MDD
HC
n/a n/a n/a n/a   Different studies showed an elevation, decrease or no changes in peripheral IGF-1 n/a
Li et al. [47] Case–control Serum MDD
HC
15
12
32.3 ± 7.7
31.2 ± 10.2
0.0
0.0
MADRS n/a No differences Escitalopram. No change in IGF-1 after 8 weeks of Rx
Palomino et al. [48] Case–control Plasma BD
HC
23
23
27.0
25.7
34.8 HAMD 19.8 ± 8.8 No differences. IGF-1 in schizophrenia correlated with negative symptoms Yes. No change in IGF-1 levels in BD after 1 year of AP Rx
Weber-Hamann et al. [49] Longitudinal parallel-group Serum MDD (total)
Amitriptyline group
Paroxetine group
77
34
43
R:51 ± 17
NR:46 ± 16
R:58 ± 16
NR:57 ± 14
72
88.8
62.9
75
HAMD R:23.9 ± 5.2 NR:22.1 ± 3.9
R:23.0 ± 3.2
NR:23.7 ± 3.5
n/a Amitriptyline/paroxetine
↓IGF-1 in R (p < 0.02)
Rueda Alfaro et al. [50] Population-based cross-sectional Plasma Age > 70 years
With DS
No DS
100
213
M:76.7 ± 5.4
F:77.3 ± 6.4
51.11 GDS n/a F: IGF-1 positively associated with cognition (p = 0.04) No
Michelson et al. [51] Longitudinal parallel-group Plasma MDD (total)
on fluoxetine
on sertraline
on paroxetine
107
37
34
36
40.0 ± 11.4
38.7 ± 14.5
39.9 ± 11.1
75.7
76.5
61.1
HAMD 4.8 ± 2.4
4.7 ± 2.3
4.9 ± 2.8
n/a Fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine. Placebo substitution of paroxetine ↑IGF-1 (p = 0.007)
Franz et al. [52] Case–control Serum MDD
HC
19
16
34.7 ± 8.8
36.1 ± 6.6
100.0
100.0
HAMD 18.8 ± 3.9 ↑(p = 0.02) No
Deuschle et al. [53] Case–control Plasma MDD
HC
24
33
47.2 ± 16.4
51.4 ± 19.2
45.8
33.3
HAMD 31.8 ± 5.8 ↑(p < 0.01) Fluoxetine, amitriptyline, doxepin. ↓IGF-1 in R (p < 0.04)
Michelson et al. [54] Case–control Serum MDD
HC
10
10
41.0 ± 8.0
41.0 ± 7.0
100.0
100.0
n/a n/a No change (p = 0.98) Yes, not specified
Lesch et al. [55] Case–control Plasma MDD/BD
HC
34
34
48.2 ± 12.2
44.7 ± 11.9
67.64
67.64
HAMD 26.9 ± 5.4 ↑(p < 0.001) No
  1. AD antidepressants; AP antipsychotic drugs; BD Bipolar disorder; CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale; CES-D8 eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale; CID-S WHO WMH-CIDI The Composite International Diagnostic-Screener; DD depression disorder; DS depressive symptoms; F females; FW follow-up; GDS Geriatric Depression Scale; HAMD Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HC healthy controls; M males; MADRS Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale; MDD major depressive disorder; n/a not applicable; N number of subjects in the group; Non-PSD stroke without depression; NR Non-responders; OR Odds ratio; PSD post-stroke depression; QIDS-SR quick inventory of depressive symptomatology 10-item, R responders; Rx treatment