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Table 1 Summary of findings

From: Insulin-like growth factor-1: a possible marker for emotional and cognitive disturbances, and treatment effectiveness in major depressive disorder

  Type of study Measure Patient N Age (Mean ± SD) F  % Depression instrument MDD severity (Mean ± SD) IGF-1 in MDD vs controls Medication and its effects on IGF-1 levels
Bot et al. [35] Observational Plasma MDD/anxiety HC 2112 602 n/a n/a n/a n/a ↑IGF-1 (p = 0.006) in AD-free individuals with current disorders; ↑IGF-1 (p = 0.09) in AD-free individuals with remitted disorders; ↓IGF-1 (p = 0.028) in AD users Yes, not specified
Rosso et al. [36] Case–control Serum OCD MDD HC 40 37 43 38.7 ± 13.3 42.4 ± 11.9 42.3 ± 11.3 55.0 78.4 65.1 HAMD 6.5 ± 3.0 19.7 ± 2.6 No significant differences. IGF-1 levels correlated to age of MDD onset (r = − 0.40, p = 0.014) Yes, citalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline No changes (p = 0.42)
Sharma et al. [37] A comprehensive review Serum/plasma MDD HC n/a n/a n/a n/a   IGF-1 levels in MDD vs controls were discrepant across studies n/a
Tu et al. [38] A meta-analysis and review Serum/plasma MDD/BD HC 389 393 n/a n/a n/a   ↑(p < 0.001); Inverse association with MDD duration (p   =   0.03); IGF-1 may be a marker of cognition Yes. No change in IGF-1 after Rx (p =  0.092)
Chigogora et al. [39] Longitudinal population-based Serum Cohort of adults ≥ 50 years 6017 65.7 55 CES-D8 n/a ↓ and ↑ levels of IGF-1 ↑DD risk; Median levels of IGF-1 ↓DD risk No
Van Varsseveld et al. [40] Longitudinal population-based Serum MDD No DD 193 995 75.4 ± 6.5 50.3 CES-D n/a M: as compared to high concentrations, mid concentrations IGF-1 ↓DD probability (OR 0.35); F: as compared to high concentrations, low concentrations ↑DD probability (OR 2.66); F after 3 year FW: as compared to high concentrations, mid concentrations ↓DD probability (OR 0.43) Yes, not specified
Rusch et al. [41] Observational Plasma MDD/PTSD 44 33.3 0 QIDS-SR 13.0 The sleep improved group revealed significant ↓ in MDD (p = 0.005) and ↑IGF-1 (p = 0.009) Yes, not specified
Kopzak et al. (2015) [42] Case–control Serum MDD HC 78 92 48.6 ± 13.9 48.1 ± 13.7 44.9 45.7 HAMD 26.4 ± 6.7 ↑ (p = 3.29E−04) Yes, not specified. IGF- 1 still ↑ after 6 weeks of Rx (p = 0.002)
Krogh et al. [43] Longitudinal parallel-group Serum MDD 79 41.3 ± 12.1 67.1 HAMD 19.0 ± 4.3 Aerobic exercise intervention did not ↑IGF-1 in MDD patients No
Sievers et al. [44] Population-based cross-sectional Serum West Pomerania Cohort 4079 (1246 DS) 50.0 ± 16.4 51 CID-S n/a F: ↓IGF-1 ↑DD probability (OR 2.70); M: ↑IGF-1 ↑DD probability (OR 3.26) No
Lin et al. [45] Cross-sectional Plasma Adults aged ≥ 50 years 94 60.7 ± 8.4 58.5 GDS n/a Among older adults with ↓IGF-1 levels: ↑depressive symptoms scores were associated with ↓ of delayed recall and recognition Yes, not specified
Emeny et al. [46] Population-based cross-sectional Serum KORA-age cohort study 144 DS 841 no DS M:75.4 F:75.7 50.0 GDS n/a F: ↑IGF-1 ↑MDD probability (p = 0.045) No
Szczęsny et al. [17] A narrative review Serum/plasma MDD HC n/a n/a n/a n/a   Different studies showed an elevation, decrease or no changes in peripheral IGF-1 n/a
Li et al. [47] Case–control Serum MDD HC 15 12 32.3 ± 7.7 31.2 ± 10.2 0.0 0.0 MADRS n/a No differences Escitalopram. No change in IGF-1 after 8 weeks of Rx
Palomino et al. [48] Case–control Plasma BD HC 23 23 27.0 25.7 34.8 HAMD 19.8 ± 8.8 No differences. IGF-1 in schizophrenia correlated with negative symptoms Yes. No change in IGF-1 levels in BD after 1 year of AP Rx
Weber-Hamann et al. [49] Longitudinal parallel-group Serum MDD (total) Amitriptyline group Paroxetine group 77 34 43 R:51 ± 17 NR:46 ± 16 R:58 ± 16 NR:57 ± 14 72 88.8 62.9 75 HAMD R:23.9 ± 5.2 NR:22.1 ± 3.9 R:23.0 ± 3.2 NR:23.7 ± 3.5 n/a Amitriptyline/paroxetine ↓IGF-1 in R (p < 0.02)
Rueda Alfaro et al. [50] Population-based cross-sectional Plasma Age > 70 years With DS No DS 100 213 M:76.7 ± 5.4 F:77.3 ± 6.4 51.11 GDS n/a F: IGF-1 positively associated with cognition (p = 0.04) No
Michelson et al. [51] Longitudinal parallel-group Plasma MDD (total) on fluoxetine on sertraline on paroxetine 107 37 34 36 40.0 ± 11.4 38.7 ± 14.5 39.9 ± 11.1 75.7 76.5 61.1 HAMD 4.8 ± 2.4 4.7 ± 2.3 4.9 ± 2.8 n/a Fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine. Placebo substitution of paroxetine ↑IGF-1 (p = 0.007)
Franz et al. [52] Case–control Serum MDD HC 19 16 34.7 ± 8.8 36.1 ± 6.6 100.0 100.0 HAMD 18.8 ± 3.9 ↑(p = 0.02) No
Deuschle et al. [53] Case–control Plasma MDD HC 24 33 47.2 ± 16.4 51.4 ± 19.2 45.8 33.3 HAMD 31.8 ± 5.8 ↑(p < 0.01) Fluoxetine, amitriptyline, doxepin. ↓IGF-1 in R (p < 0.04)
Michelson et al. [54] Case–control Serum MDD HC 10 10 41.0 ± 8.0 41.0 ± 7.0 100.0 100.0 n/a n/a No change (p = 0.98) Yes, not specified
Lesch et al. [55] Case–control Plasma MDD/BD HC 34 34 48.2 ± 12.2 44.7 ± 11.9 67.64 67.64 HAMD 26.9 ± 5.4 ↑(p < 0.001) No
  1. AD antidepressants; AP antipsychotic drugs; BD Bipolar disorder; CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale; CES-D8 eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale; CID-S WHO WMH-CIDI The Composite International Diagnostic-Screener; DD depression disorder; DS depressive symptoms; F females; FW follow-up; GDS Geriatric Depression Scale; HAMD Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HC healthy controls; M males; MADRS Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale; MDD major depressive disorder; n/a not applicable; N number of subjects in the group; Non-PSD stroke without depression; NR Non-responders; OR Odds ratio; PSD post-stroke depression; QIDS-SR quick inventory of depressive symptomatology 10-item, R responders; Rx treatment