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Table 2 Factors associated with depression symptoms among HIV-infected adolescents on cARV and long-term follow-up at Kenyatta National Hospital

From: Understanding mental health difficulties and associated psychosocial outcomes in adolescents in the HIV clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

Parameter Overall (N = 270) Depression symptoms OR (95% CI) Chi square (P value)
No (n = 128) Yes (n = 142)
Gender
 Male 145 (53.7) 70 (54.7) 77 (54.2) Ref. (χ2 (1, 270) = 0.01; P = 0.939)
 Female 125 (46.3) 58 (45.3) 65 (45.8) 1.0 (0.6–1.7)
Age
 10–14 125 (46.3) 75 (58.6) 50 (35.2) Ref. (χ2 (1, 270) = 14.80; P = 0.001)
 15–19 145 (53.7) 53 (41.4) 92 (64.8) 2.60 (1.6–4.3)
School environment
 Happy with school performance 193 (71.5) 92 (71.9) 101 (71.1) 0.96 (0.6–1.6) (χ2 (1, 270) = 0.02; P = 0.9)
 Plan to continue with education 260 (96.3) 122 (95.3) 138 (97.2) 1.70 (0.5–6.2) (χ2 (1, 270) = 0.66; P = 0.4)
 Been bullied in school 50 (18.5) 21 (16.4) 29 (20.4) 1.31 (0.7–2.4) (χ2 (1, 270) = 0.72; P = 0.4)
 School performance dropping 49 (18.1) 20 (15.6) 29 (20.4) 1.39 (0.7–2.6) (χ2 (1, 270) = 1.04; P = 0.3)
 Changed schools in the past 2 years 85 (31.5) 33 (25.8) 52 (36.6) 1.66 (1.0–2.8) (χ2 (1, 270) = 3.67; P = 0.05)
 Ever repeated a class 91 (33.7) 34 (26.6) 57 (40.1) 1.85 (1.1–3.1) (χ2 (1, 270) = 5.56; P = 0.02)
 Ever sent away from school due to lack of fees 119 (44.1) 45 (37.8) 74 (62.2) 2.01 (1.2–3.3) (χ2 (1, 270) = 7.85; P = 0.005)
Activity
 Has extracurricular activities 190 (70.4) 90 (70.3) 100 (70.4) 1.0 (0.6–1.7) (χ2 (1, 270) = 0.00; P = 0.9)
 Attend religious activities 251 (93.0) 120 (93.8) 131 (92.3) 1.26 (0.5–3.2) (χ2 (1, 270) = 0.23; P = 0.6)
Home environment
 Changed homes in the last 1 year 59 (21.9) 28 (21.9) 31 (21.8) 1.00 (0.6–1.8) (χ2 (1, 270) = 0.00; P = 0.99)
 Ever ran away from home 18 (6.7) 4 (3.1) 14 (9.9) 3.39 (1.1–10.6) (χ2 (1, 270) = 4.91; P = 0.03)
 Physical violence at home 11 (4.1) 5 (3.9) 6 (4.2) 1.09 (0.3–3.7) (χ2 (1, 270) = 0.02; P = 0.895)
 Involuntarily misses meals because of lack of food 34 (12.6) 9 (7.0) 25 (17.6) 2.83 (1.3–6.3) (χ2 (1, 270) = 6.84; P = 0.009)
Drug and substance use
 Family members or friends who use drugs 96 (35.6) 41 (32.0) 55 (38.7) 0.75 (0.5–1.2) (χ2 (1, 270) = 1.32; P = 0.3)
 Use drugs/substance abuse 23 (8.5) 5 (3.9) 18 (12.7) 3.57 (1.3–10.0) (χ2 (1, 270) = 6.64; P = 0.01)
Sexuality
 Agree that condoms reduces HIV transmission 126 (46.7) 52 (40.6) 74 (52.1) 1.59 (1.0–2.6) (χ2 (2, 270) = 3.83; P = 0.1)
 Ever had sex (N = 228) 31 (13.6) 12 (12.4) 19 (14.5) 1.20 (0.6–2.6) (χ2 (1, 228) = 0.22; P = 0.6)
 Inconsistently using condoms (N = 29) 20 (69.0) 8 (66.7) 12 (70.6) 1.20 (0.2–5.9) (χ2 (1, 29) = 0.05; P = 0.8)
HIV Disclosure
 Full HIV disclosure 174 (64.4) 78 (60.9) 96 (67.6) 1.34 (0.8–2.2) (χ2 (1, 270) = 1.31; P = 0.3)
Adherence to medication
 Non-perfect adherence to medication 139 (51.5) 50 (39.1) 89 (62.7) 2.62 (1.6–4.3) (χ2 (1, 270) = 15.02; P < 0.001)
 Perfect adherence to mediation 131 (48.5) 78 (60.9) 53 (37.3) Ref.