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Table 2 The association between various demographic, psychosocial and medical factors with preterm delivery

From: Depression during pregnancy and preterm delivery: a prospective cohort study among women attending antenatal clinic at Pumwani Maternity Hospital

Factor Preterm Full Term RR (95% CI) P value Adjusted RR P value
N = 27 N = 228
Demographic factors
 A. Age (years)
  < 19 1(3.7) 17(7.5) 0.57(0.08–4.22)   2.34(0.32–17.05) 0.403
  20–24 10(37.0) 93(40.8) 1.00(Ref) 0.864 1.00(Ref)  
  25–29 9(33.3) 74(32.5) 1.12(0.48–2.62)   2.36(0.3–18.48) 0.412
  30–34 6(22.2) 35(15.4) 1.51(0.58–3.89)   4.31(0.53–35.14) 0.172
  35–40 1(3.7) 9(3.9) 1.03(0.15–7.27)   2.53(0.16–39.98) 0.511
 B. Highest education
  Tertiary (university/college) 3(11.1) 48(21.1) 0.52(0.16–1.72)   0.40(0.1–1.67) 0.212
  Secondary/high school 16(59.3) 126(55.3 1.09(0.47–2.51) 0.593 0.90(0.34–2.4) 0.839
  Primary school 7(25.9) 50(21.9) 1.00(Ref)   1.00(Ref)  
  No formal education 1(3.7) 4(1.8) 1.77(0.29–10.92)   1.43(0.36–5.62) 0.612
 C. Monthly income (USD)
  < 50 6(22.2) 20(8.8) 2.50(1.04–6.00)   0.52(0.22–1,24) 0.142
  50–99 5(18.5) 55(24.1) 0.90(0.34–2.43)   0.35(0.11–1.08) 0.068
  100–349 13(48.1) 128(56.1 1.00(Ref) 0.259 1.00(Ref)  
  > 350 3(11.1) 25(10.9) 1.16(0.35–3.81)   0.64(0.14–2.96) 0.572
 D. Psychosocial factors
  1. Stressful life event
    No 14(51.9) 135(59.2 1.00(Ref) 0.463   
    Yes 13(48.1) 93(40.8) 1.31(0.64–2.67)   1.18(0.54–2.59) 0.673
  2. Perceived presence of social support
    Yes 27(100.0) 214(93.9 NA 0.185   
    No 0(0.0) 14(6.1) NA   NA NA
  3. Experience of IPV
    No 26(96.3) 216(94.7 1.00(Ref) 0.728   
    Yes 1(3.7) 12(5.3) 0.72(0.10–4.89)   0.44(0.07–2.91) 0.392
  4. Alcohol use in pregnancy
    No 25(92.6) 221(96.9 1.00(Ref) 0.248   
    Yes 2(7.4) 7(3.1) 2.19(0.61–7.86)   1.95(0.63–6.02) 0.247
  5. Cigarette smoking in pregnancy
    No 26(96.3) 224(98.2 1.00(Ref) 0.49   
    Yes 1(3.7) 4(1.8) 1.92(0.32–11.56)   1.25(0.23–6.7) 0.795
 E. Medical factors
  1. Previous preterm
    No 24(88.9) 201(88.2 1.00(Ref) 0.911   
    Yes 3(11.1) 27(11.8) 0.94(0.30–2.93)   0.87(0.26–2.95) 0.829
  2. Hemoglobin level (mmol/l)
   > 10 25(92.6) 210(92.1 1.00(Ref) 0.929   
   < 10 2(7.4) 18(7.9) 0.94(0.24–3.69)   0.80(0.15–4.29) 0.795
  3. Systolic blood pressure
    Below 140 mmHg 22(81.5) 208(91.2 1.00(Ref) 0.107   
    Above/equal to 140 mmHg 5(18.5) 20(8.8) 2.09(0.87–5.04)   2.20(0.93–5.19) 0.072
 F. Depressive symptoms
  No depressive symptoms 8(29.6) 149(65.4 1.00(Ref) < 0.001   
  Present depressive symptoms 19(70.4) 79(34.6) 3.80(1.73–8.37)   3.56(1.7–7.48) 0.001
  1. Significant P values are in italics