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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Psychotic (delusional) depression and completed suicide: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors Study type Study source/country Age PMD/non-PMD Sample: PMD/non-PMD Suicide victims PMD/non-PMD Strengths Limitations Suicides in PMD vs. non-PMD
Black et al. [14] Clinical, 0–14-year prospective/retrospective Initially inpatients, Iowa, USA No data 183/824 6/28 Adequate initial assessment of psychosis Lack of data on: diagnosis at the time of death, depression severity, comorbidity, mood congruence, suicide method No difference
Coryell and Tsuang [16] Clinical, 40-year, prospective/retrospective Initially inpatients Iowa, USA 43.8/43.9 122/103 8/7 Adequate initial assessment of psychosis Lack of data on: diagnosis at the time of death, depression severity, comorbidity, mood congruence, suicide method No difference
Leadholm et al. [17] Population-based, nation-wide (in Denmark), prospective/retrospective 17-year follow-up Patients treated at hospital-based settings Denmark No specific data (age at diagnosis of severe depression all samples 51.2 (SD 18.9) 12,150/26,106 280/551 Large study comprising all patients discharged from hospital-based settings during 17 years in Denmark, data on comorbidity, mood congruence, and severity ICD-10 criteria, lack of psychiatric diagnosis at the time of death and on suicide method No difference
Maj et al. [19] Clinical, 10-year follow-up Patients initially treated at hospital-based setting Naples, Italy 45.2/44.5 89/363 2/2 DSM-IV criteria, assessment both initial at the follow-up period, assessment of severity, mood congruence, and comorbidity Very small numbers of victims, lack of data on suicide method Data inconclusive
Robinson and Spiker [62] Clinical, 1-year follow-up Initially inpatients, New York, USA 45.6/45.8 52/52 Matched 1/0 Adequate assessment of psychosis Very small number of victims, no data on severity, comorbidity, mood congruence, suicide method Data inconclusive
Roose et al. [11] Clinical, cross-sectional, retrospective inpatients New York, USA No data 19/23 10/4 Diagnosis of PMD both initial and at the time of suicide, depression severity Lack of data on mood congruence, comorbidity, method PMD ↑ suicides
Schneider et al. [64] Clinical, 5-year follow-up Initially inpatients, Frankfurt Germany No specific data, mean of the sample 39.8 (SD 16.8) range 11–74 60/218 3/13 DSM-III-R criteria and data on severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and mood congruence Lack of psychiatric diagnosis at the time of death, no data on suicide method, small number of victims No difference
Suominen et al. [12] Clinical, prospective/retrospective, 4-year follow-up Initially inpatients with suicidal attempt, Helsinki, Finland No specific data (mean of the sample 41.7 SD 15.4) Range ≥ 16 years old 110/477 19/40 Assessment of depression severity ICD-10 criteria, lack of psychiatric diagnosis at the time of death. No data on comorbidity, mood congruence and suicidal method PMD ↑ suicides
Wolfersdorf et al. [63] Clinical, cross-sectional, retrospective inpatients, Ulm, Germany No data 46/46 4/2 Initial assessment of psychosis and assessment at the time of suicide Lack of suicide definition, and data on comorbidity Data inconclusive