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Table 4 Fruits and vegetables intake across depressed and healthy subjects

From: Fruits and vegetables intake and its subgroups are related to depression: a cross-sectional study from a developing country

Daily intake (g) Depressed
(n = 101)
Mean ± SD
Healthy
(n = 299)
Mean ± SD
p a p b p c
Total vegetables and fruits 289.1 ± 104.7 373.2 ± 76.4 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Total vegetables 160.2 ± 69.1 197.1 ± 54.9 < 0.001d < 0.001 < 0.001
Cruciferous vegetables 4.0 ± 5.0 6.5 ± 6.5 < 0.001d < 0.001 0.005
Green leafy vegetables 16.3 ± 13.9e 23.9 ± 12.6 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.06
Dark yellow vegetables 5.1 ± 4.1 6.2 ± 4.5 0.01 0.011 0.1
Other vegetables 130.6 ± 55.2 157.9 ± 45.4 < 0.001d < 0.001 0.016
Total fruits 118.5 ± 53.7e 170.6 ± 48.6 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Berries fruits 0.5 ± 0.5 0.8 ± 0.6 < 0.001d < 0.001 0.1
Citrus fruits 25.3 ± 12.5 35.2 ± 10.9 < 0.001d < 0.001 < 0.001
Other fruits 93.8 ± 45.9e 134.4 ± 44.5 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. Total vegetables and fruits are defined as in Table 1
  2. Cruciferous vegetables include white cabbage, red cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower
  3. Green leafy vegetables include spinach, lettuce, and green vegetables such as basil, parsley, cress, leek, spearmint, origany, coriander and scallion
  4. Dark yellow vegetables include carrot, yellow squash
  5. Other vegetables include cucumber, tomato, zucchini, eggplant, celery, green pea, green bean, garlic, onion, green pepper, bell peppers, turnip, mushroom, olive, corn and artichoke
  6. Berries fruits include strawberry, white mulberry black mulberry and dried berries
  7. Citrus fruits include orange, tangerine, grapefruits, sweet lemon, sour lemon, orange juice
  8. Other fruits include cantaloupe, melon, pear, apricot, cherry, apple, peach, nectarine, greengage, fig, kiwi fruit, persimmon, pomegranate, date, plum, sour cherry, banana, pineapple, grapes, dry peach and apricot, raisin and fruit juice
  9. Values are means (standard deviations)
  10. aUnadjusted, Student t test
  11. bAdjusted for energy intake; ANCOVA test
  12. cAdjusted for age, body mass index, physical activity, energy intake and healthy eating index score. Total vegetables and total fruits intake were mutually adjusted. For each vegetables and fruits sub-groups, total fruits and vegetables intake was adjusted; ANCOVA test
  13. dMann–Withney test
  14. eGeometric mean ± SEM