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Table 5 Odds ratio (95% CI) of depression according to quartiles (Q) of fruits and vegetables intake

From: Fruits and vegetables intake and its subgroups are related to depression: a cross-sectional study from a developing country

Daily intake Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 p-trend*
Total vegetables and fruits
g/day (median)
233.9 332.1 378.3 451.6  
Cases of depressed 55 19 17 10  
Model 1
p
11 (5.12–23.59)
< 0.001
2.1 (0.92–4.8)
0.07
1.84 (0.79–4.25)
0.1
1 < 0.001
Model 2
p
18.83 (7.96–44.51)
< 0.001
2.98 (1.23–7.2)
0.01
2.47 (1.02–5.96)
0.04
1 < 0.001
Total vegetables
g/day (median)
125.4 176.6 203.2 245.8  
Cases of depressed 54 16 14 17  
Model 1
p
5.73 (2.98–11.01)
< 0.001
0.93 (0.44–1.96)
0.8
0.79 (0.36–1.71)
0.5
1 < 0.001
Model 2
p
4.43 (2.06–9.51)
< 0.001
1.14 (0.50–2.59)
0.7
1.07 (0.46–2.5)
0.8
1 0.001
Cruciferous vegetables
g/day (median)
2.5 3.1 6.2 6.2  
Cases of depressed 44 24 22 11  
Model 1
p
4.92 (2.33–10.42)
< 0.001
1.79 (0.82–3.91)
0.1
1.53 (0.69–3.37)
0.2
1 0.001
Model 2
p
1.6 (0.57–4.48)
0.3
0.94 (0.34–2.55)
0.9
1.29 (0.52–3.21)
0.5
1 0.6
Green leafy vegetables
g/day (median)
14.3 21.6 24.8 31.6  
Cases of depressed 49 17 15 20  
Model 1
p
3.84 (2.05–7.19)
< 0.001
0.81 (0.4–1.67)
0.5
0.7 (0.33–1.47)
0.3
1 < 0.001
Model 2
p
1.61 (0.64–4.02)
0.3
0.55 (0.22–1.35)
0.1
0.58 (0.24–1.4)
0.2
1 0.02
Dark yellow vegetables
g/day (median)
2.1 4.3 5.7 7.7  
Cases of depressed 34 25 20 22  
Model 1
p
1.82 (0.97–3.42)
0.06
1.18 (0.61–2.27)
0.6
0.88 (0.44–1.57)
0.7
1 0.03
Model 2
P
0.45 (0.18–1.09)
0.07
0.61 (0.26–1.41)
0.2
0.68 (0.3–1.53)
0.3
1 0.2
Other vegetables
g/day (median)
102.7 144.6 166.2 190.3  
Cases of depressed 49 24 9 19  
Model 1
p
4.09 (2.17–7.73)
< 0.001
1.34 (0.68–2.65)
0.3
0.42 (0.18–0.98)
0.04
1 < 0.001
Model 2
p
2.05 (0.88–4.79)
0.09
1.43 (0.64–3.23)
0.3
0.5 (0.19–1.33)
0.1
1 0.07
Total fruits
g/day (median)
108.3 155.6 180 209.2  
Cases of depressed 58 17 14 12  
Model 1
p
10.12 (4.91–20.85)
< 0.001
1.5 (0.67–3.33)
0.3
1.19 (0.52–2.72)
0.6
1 < 0.001
Model 2
p
11.08 (4.96–24.75)
< 0.001
2.12 (0.90–5.01)
0.08
1.27 (0.54–2.99)
0.5
1 < 0.001
Berries fruits
g/day (median)
0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6  
Cases of depressed 53 20 12 16  
Model 1
p
5.72 (2.95–11.11)
< 0.001
1.33 (0.64–2.75)
0.4
0.69 (0.30–1.54)
0.3
1 0.001
Model 2
p
2.77 (1.24–6.18)
0.01
0.81 (0.34–1.91)
0.6
0.68 (0.27–1.68)
0.4
1 0.3
Citrus fruits
g/day (median)
24.7 34.3 36.4 37.6  
Cases of depressed 55 22 12 12  
Model 1
p
8.96 (4.36–18.42)
< 0.001
2.06 (0.96–4.45)
0.06
1 (0.42–2.34)
1
1 < 0.001
Model 2
p
3.14 (1.34–7.38)
0.008
1.27 (0.53–3.04)
0.5
0.68 (0.27–1.74)
0.4
1 0.004
Other fruits
g/day (median)
85.1 121.1 141 167.4  
Cases of depressed 55 19 14 13  
Model 1
p
8.17 (4.04–16.52)
< 0.001
1.57 (0.72–3.38)
0.2
1.08 (0.48–2.45)
0.8
1 < 0.001
Model 2
p
4.93 (1.97–12.31)
0.001
1.61 (0.67–3.89)
0.2
1.03 (0.43–2.51)
0.9
1 < 0.001
  1. Model 1: unadjusted
  2. Model 2: adjusted for age, body mass index, physical activity, energy intake and healthy eating index. Total vegetables and total fruits intake were mutually adjusted. For each vegetables and fruits sub-groups, other sub-groups of fruits and vegetables intake was adjusted
  3. Fruits and vegetables are defined as in Tables 1 and 4
  4. * Tests for trend were performed by entering the categorical variables as continuous parameters in the models