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Table 1 Social characteristics of the participants (N =93)

From: The experience and impact of stigma in Saudi people with a mood disorder

Characteristic Bipolar disorder (n = 50) Depression (n = 43) Total (n = 93)
Sex
 Male 19 (38.8%) 11 (25.6%) 30 (32.3%)
 Female 31 (62.0%) 32 (74.4%) 63 (67.7%)
Age group
 29 years and younger 11 (22.0%) 4 (9.3%) 15 (16.1%)
 30–39 years 18 (36.0%) 9 (20.9%) 27 (29%)
 40–49 years 10 (20.0%) 12 (27.9%) 22 (23.7%)
 50–59 years 7 (14.0%) 13 (30.2%) 20 (21.5%)
 60–72 years 4 (8.0%) 5 (11.6%) 9 (9.7%)
Highest level of education
 Illiterate 0 (0%) 4 (9.3%) 4 (4.3%)
 Elementary or intermediate school 7 (14.0%) 15 (34.9%) 22 (23.7%)
 High school 12 (24.0%) 10 (23.3%) 22 (23.7%)
 College or technical training 5 (10.0%) 4 (9.3%) 9 (9.7%)
 University 21 (42.0%) 10 (23.3%) 31 (33.3%)
 Postgraduate study 5 (10.0%) 0 (0%) 5 (5.4%)
Marital status
 Single 20 (40.0%) 6 (14.0%) 26 (28%)
 Separated 1 (2.0%) 5 (11.6%) 6 (6.5%)
 Widowed 3 (6.0%) 2 (4.7%) 5 (5.4%)
 Divorced 3 (6.0%) 3 (7.0%) 6 (6.5%)
 Married 23 (46.0%) 27 (62.8%) 50 (53.8%)
Living situation
 Alone 0 (0%) 1 (2.3%) 1 (1.1%)
 With spouse 18 (36.0%) 27 (62.8%) 45 (48.4%)
 With parents 24 (48.0%) 10 (23.3%) 34 (36.6%)
 With another close relative 6 (12.0%) 3 (7.0%) 9 (9.7%)
 Other 2 (4.0%) 2 (4.7%) 4 (4.3%)
Employment status
 Employed 17 (34.0%) 6 (14.0%) 23 (24.7%)
 Not employed 33 (66.0%) 37 (86.0%) 70 (75.3%)
Nature of employment
 Unable to work due to psychiatric problems 10 (20.0%) 10 (23.3%) 20 (21.5%)
 Unable to work due to medical problems 11 (22.0%) 15 (34.9%) 26 (28%)
 Homemaker 3 (6.0%) 5 (11.6%) 8 (8.6%)
 Retired 8 (16.0%) 6 (14.0%) 14 (15.1%)
 Volunteer worker 1 (2.0%) 1 (2.3%) 2 (2.2%)
 Full-time worker 17 (34.0%) 6 (14.0%) 23 (24.7%)
Mental health now compared to a year ago
 Better 38 (76.0%) 25 (58.1%) 63 (67.7%)
 About the same 10 (20.0%) 12 (27.9%) 22 (23.7%)
 Worse 2 (4.0%) 6 (14.0%) 8 (8.6%)
Age at symptom onset
 9–19 years 19 (38.0%) 16 (38.1%) 35 (38.0%)
 20–29 years 21 (42.0%) 8 (19.0%) 29 (31.5%)
 30–39 years 4 (8.0%) 12 (28.6%) 16 (17.4%)
 40+ years 6 (12.0%) 6 (14.3%) 12 (13.0%)
Age at first treatment
 10–19 years 16 (32.0%) 8 (18.6%) 24 (25.8%)
 20–29 years 23 (46.0%) 9 (20.9%) 32 (34.4%)
 30–39 years 5 (10.0%) 12 (27.9%) 17 (18.3%)
 40+ years 6 (12.0%) 14 (32.6%) 20 (21.5%)
Number of years between symptom onset and first treatment
 Under 1 year 30 (60.0%) 18 (42.9%) 48 (52.2%)
 1–2 years 10 (20.0%) 5 (11.9%) 15 (16.3%)
 3–5 years 8 (16.0%) 7 (16.7%) 15 (15.3%)
 6–10 years 1 (2.0%) 5 (11.9%) 6 (6.5%)
 10+ years 1 (2.0%) 7 (16.7%) 8 (8.7%)
Have come to accept their diagnosis
 No 5 (10.0%) 5 (11.6%) 10 (10.8%)
 Yes 45 (90.0%) 38 (88.4%) 83 (89.2%)
Years between treatment initiation and the acceptance of their diagnosis
 Not accepted 5 (10%) 5 (11.6%) 10 (10.8%)
 < 1 year 34 (68.0%) 31 (72.1%) 65 (69.9%)
 1–5 years 8 (16 .0%) 4 (9.3%) 12 (12.9%)
 6–10 years 1 (2.0%) 1 (2.3%) 2 (2.2%)
 11–15 years 1 (2.0%) 2 (4.7%) 3 (3.2%)
 21–25 years 1 (2.0%) 0 (0%) 1 (1.1%)
Ever hospitalized for a mental illness or suicide attempt
 Yes 36 (72.0%) 11 (25.6%) 47 (50.5%)
 No 14 (28.0%) 32 (74.4%) 46 (49.5%)
Hospital use
 Ever hospitalized in a provincial psychiatric institution 1 (3.2%) 3 (37.5%) 4 (10.3%)
 Ever hospitalized in a general hospital psychiatric unit 30 (96.8%) 5 (62.5%) 35 (89.7%)
Services used in the last year
 Voluntarily hospitalized in the last year 10 (27.0%) 2 (18.2%) 12 (25.0%)
 Involuntarily hospitalized in the last year 27 (73.0%) 9 (81.8%) 36 (75.0%)
Use of outpatient community mental health programs in the last year
 Yes 29 (58.0%) 29 (67.4%) 58 (62.4%)
 No 21 (42.0%) 14 (32.6%) 35 (37.6%)
Frequency of outpatient treatment (N =58)
 Weekly 2 (6.9%) 3 (10.3%) 5 (8.6%)
 2–3 times per month 0 (0%) 1 (3.4%) 1 (1.7%)
 Monthly 5 (17.2%) 0 (0%) 5 (8.6%)
 Every 2–3 months 2 (6.9%) 5 (17.2%) 7 (12.1%)
 1–2 times per year 20 (69.0%) 20 (69.0%) 40 (69.0%)