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Table 2 Group comparisons of life satisfaction, happiness, and clinical factors according to the presence of depression

From: Life satisfaction and happiness associated with depressive symptoms among university students: a cross-sectional study in Korea

Variables Depressive symptoms t/χ2 p
No (BDI < 16) N (%) or mean ± SD Yes (BDI ≥ 16) N (%) or mean ± SD Total N (%) or mean ± SD
Life satisfaction
 SWLS 22.4 ± 5.7 15.5 ± 5.5 21.5 ± 6.2 20.05 < 0.001
Happiness
 PPTI 34.5 ± 9.9 22.6 ± 8.6 32.9 ± 10.5 22.36 < 0.001
  Pleasant life 12.9 ± 3.7 8.5 ± 3.5 12.3 ± 4.0 19.95 < 0.001
  Engaged life 11.7 ± 3.9 7.9 ± 3.8 11.2 ± 4.1 16.08 < 0.001
  Meaningful life 6.9 ± 2.8 4.6 ± 2.6 6.6 ± 2.9 13.74 < 0.001
Clinical factors
 Alcohol consumption
  AUDIT 8.1 ± 6.2 9.5 ± 8.1 8.3 ± 6.5 − 2.97 0.003
  Social drinking 1309 (64.7) 182 (58.0) 1491 (63.8) 5.30 0.021
  Hazardous drinking 715 (35.3) 132 (42.0) 847 (36.2)   
 Sleep quality
  PSQI global score 5.1 ± 2.7 7.8 ± 3.3 5.5 ± 2.9 − 13.93 < 0.001
  PSQI component score
   Sleep quality 1.0 ± 0.6 1.5 ± 0.7 1.1 ± 0.7 − 11.59 < 0.001
   Sleep latency 1.3 ± 1.0 1.9 ± 1.1 1.4 ± 1.1 − 8.95 < 0.001
   Sleep duration 0.9 ± 0.9 1.2 ± 1.0 0.9 ± 0.9 − 4.42 < 0.001
   Sleep efficiency 0.3 ± 0.6 0.5 ± 0.8 0.3 ± 0.7 − 6.27 < 0.001
   Sleep disturbance 0.8 ± 0.5 1.2 ± 0.5 0.9 ± 0.5 − 11.68 < 0.001
   Hypnotic medication use 0.0 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.5 0.0 ± 0.2 − 8.10 < 0.001
   Daytime dysfunction 0.8 ± 0.8 1.5 ± 0.9 0.9 ± 0.8 − 15.08 < 0.001
  Good sleep 1210 (59.8) 80 (25.5) 1290 (55.2) 129.34 < 0.001
  Poor sleep 814 (40.2) 234 (74.5) 1048 (44.8)   
  1. BDI Beck Depression Inventory, AUDIT Alcohol Use Disorders of Identification Test, PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, SWLS Satisfaction with Life Scale, PPTI Positive Psychotherapy Inventory