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Table 2 Comparison of clinical characteristics between the addiction and normal group

From: The relationship between smartphone addiction and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity in South Korean adolescents

Variables Total (n = 4512) Addiction group (n = 338) Normal group (n = 4174) χ 2 OR 95% CI
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Sex 22.108*** 1.75 1.38–2.21
 Male 2034 (45.1) 111 (32.8) 1923 (46.1)    
 Female 2478 (54.9) 227 (67.2) 2251 (53.9)    
SES 3.912   
 High 1219 (27.0) 83 (24.6) 1136 (27.2)    
 Middle 2551 (56.5) 187 (55.3) 2364 (56.6)    
 Low 742 (16.5) 68 (20.1) 674 (16.1)    
Family structure 0.685   
 Both parents 3939 (87.3) 292 (86.4) 3647 (87.4)    
 Single parent 491 (10.9) 38 (11.2) 453 (10.9)    
 Other 82 (1.8) 8 (2.4) 74 (1.8)    
Depression 153.003*** 4.15 3.26–5.28
 Yes 622 (13.8) 122 (36.1) 500 (12.0)    
 No 3890 (86.2) 216 (63.9) 3674 (88.0)    
Anxiety 157.998*** 4.41 3.43–5.64
 Yes 528 (11.7) 111 (32.8) 417 (10.0)    
 No 3984 (88.3) 227 (67.2) 3757 (90.0)    
ADHD 335.269*** 10.14 7.54–13.63
 Yes 228 (5.1) 88 (26.0) 140 (3.4)    
 No 4284 (94.9) 250 (74.0) 4034 (96.6)    
Smoking 16.12*** 2.06 1.44–2.96
 Yes 279 (6.2) 38 (11.2) 241 (5.8)    
 No 4233 (93.8) 300 (88.8) 3933 (94.2)    
Alcohol 11.354** 1.62 1.22–2.16
 Yes 598 (13.3) 65 (19.2) 533 (12.8)    
 No 3914 (86.7) 273 (80.8) 3641 (87.2)    
  1. SES socio-economic status, ADHD Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001