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Table 3 Ordinal regression analyses via GLZ models of CPGs at T1 using psychological well-being and life satisfaction at T0 as independent variables for the two study sub-cohorts

From: Positive psychological well-being predicts lower severe pain in the general population: a 2-year follow-up study of the SwePain cohort

Baseline variables Unadjusted Adjusted Fully adjusteda
OR 95% CI p value OR 95% CI p value OR 95% CI p value
Sub-cohort 1: Participants without chronic pain at T0 (CPG = 0; N1 = 5693)
 Psychological well-being
  Severe distress 1 [reference] 1 [reference]  
  Moderate distress 0.98 0.76–1.27 0.877 1.12 0.84–1.48 0.453
  Positive well-being 0.53 0.42–0.67 < 0.001 0.64 0.49–0.84 < 0.001
 Life satisfaction
  Not satisfied 1 [reference] 1 [reference]  
  Satisfied 1.01 0.84–1.21 0.925 1.02 0.83–1.24 0.873
  1. Italic values indicate significance of a p value (p < 0.05)
  2. GLZ Generalized Linear Models for ordinal outcomes, T0 baseline, T1 2-year follow-up, CPGs chronic pain grades, OR odds ratio, CI Wald confidence interval, Unadjusted both baseline predictors were simultaneously controlled for, Adjusted corrected for baseline covariates excluding baseline CPGs: age (older adults vs. adults), sex (women vs. men), county of birth (abroad vs. born in Sweden), civil status (married vs. other), employment (unemployment vs. employment), education (university vs. other), household income (> median = high vs. < median = low), multimorbidity (multimorbidity vs. single morbidity), and sleep problems (yes vs. no), Fully adjusted corrected for all adjusted baseline covariates and baseline CPGs from I to IV
  3. aThe fully adjusted model cannot be applied in the sub-cohort 1 because the baseline CPG = 0
Baseline variables Unadjusted Adjusted Fully adjusteda
OR 95% CI p value OR 95% CI p value OR 95% CI p value
Sub-cohort 2: Participants with chronic pain at T0 (CPG > 0; N2 = 3668)
 Psychological well-being
  Severe distress 1 [reference] 1 [reference] 1 [reference]
  Moderate distress 0.71 0.59–0.85 < 0.001 0.78 0.64–0.96 0.016 0.96 0.78–1.17 0.654
  Positive well-being 0.43 0.36–0.51 < 0.001 0.53 0.44–0.65 < 0.001 0.80 0.65-0.98 0.031
 Life satisfaction
  Not satisfied 1 [reference] 1 [reference] 1 [reference]
  Satisfied 0.84 0.72–0.97 0.016 0.89 0.76–1.05 0.155 0.82 0.69–0.96 0.014
  1. Italic values indicate significance of a p value (p < 0.05)
  2. GLZ Generalized Linear Models for ordinal outcomes, T0 baseline, T1 2-year follow-up, CPGs chronic pain grades, OR odds ratio, CI Wald confidence interval, Unadjusted both baseline predictors were simultaneously controlled for, Adjusted corrected for baseline covariates excluding baseline CPGs: age (older adults vs. adults), sex (women vs. men), county of birth (abroad vs. born in Sweden), civil status (married vs. other), employment (unemployment vs. employment), education (university vs. other), household income (> median = high vs. < median = low), multimorbidity (multimorbidity vs. single morbidity), and sleep problems (yes vs. no), Fully adjusted corrected for all adjusted baseline covariates and baseline CPGs from I to IV
  3. aThe fully adjusted model cannot be applied in the sub-cohort 1 because the baseline CPG = 0