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Table 3 Simple and multiple regression results for factors associated with severity of depression among type 2 DM patients

From: Coping behaviors and depressive status in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  r Significance Beta Significance
Sex 0.044 0.181 0.042 0.374
Age − 0.030 0.265 0.061 0.234
BMI 0.035 0.234 0.02 0.674
HBA1c − 0.001 0.490 − 0.015 0.739
Smoking − 0.083 0.043 − 0.120 0.008
Alcohol 0.068 0.078 0.072 0.121
Exercise frequency − 0.045 0.176 − 0.017 0.704
Single 0.116 0.008 0.114 0.027
Living alone 0.053 0.134 − 0.006 0.911
Coping profiles
 Active solution 0.151 0.001 0.046 0.403
 Seeking help for a solution 0.137 0.002 0.103 0.064
 Changing mood − 0.003 0.471 − 0.013 0.791
 Changing one’s point of view 0.129 0.004 0.175 < 0.001
 Avoidance and suppression − 0.332 < 0.001 − 0.275 < 0.001
 Emotional expression involving others − 0.325 < 0.001 − 0.226 < 0.001
Multiple correlation coefficients    0.487 < 0.001
Sex 0.044 0.181 0.033 0.485
Age − 0.030 0.265 0.052 0.313
BMI 0.035 0.234 0.033 0.497
HBA1c − 0.001 0.490 − 0.020 0.674
Smoking − 0.083 0.043 − 0.116 0.011
Alcohol 0.068 0.078 0.071 0.127
Exercise frequency − 0.045 0.176 − 0.018 0.693
Single 0.116 0.008 0.113 0.028
Living alone 0.053 0.134 − 0.008 0.882
Coping dimensions
 Problem focused 0.163 < 0.001 0.135 0.007
 Adaptive emotion focused 0.074 0.063 0.131 0.011
 Maladaptive emotion focused − 0.384 < 0.001 − 0.429 < 0.001
Multiple correlation coefficients    0.525 < 0.001
  1. Linear regression analyses for coping profiles and coping dimension were separately performed including confounding factors such as sex, age, BMI, presence/absence of smoking, habitual alcohol consumption, living alone, and exercise habits, HbA1c, and insulin use/no use
  2. Italic show statistically significant
  3. p < 0.003 was regarded as significant using Bonferroni’s correction due to multiple testing in simple correlations