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Table 1 Demographic and treatment characteristics of all male participants

From: A comparison of sexual desire in opiate-dependent men receiving methadone and buprenorphine maintenance treatment

  MMT (n = 95) BMT (n = 31) df χ2, Z, t p value
Age, years, mean ± SD 43.51 ± 9.82 41.60 ± 9.80 123 0.93 0.37
Daily dose, mean ± SD 74.53 ± 33.68 2.44 ± 1.81   
Duration of MMT or BMT, mean ± SD 50.07 ± 37.86 64.47 ± 44.21 123 − 1.74 0.08
BMI, mean ± SD 23.64 ± 4.80 23.46 ± 4.23 123 0.19 0.84
Ethnic group, n (%)
 Malay 87 (91.6) 28 (90.3) 3 4.29 0.22
 Chinese 7 (7.4) 1 (3.2)    
 Indian 1 (1.1) 1 (3.2)    
 Others 0 1 (3.2)    
Religion, n (%)
 Islam 87 (91.6) 29 (93.5) 3 1.43 0.69
 Christian 1 (1.3) 1 (3.2)    
 Buddha 6 (6.3) 1 (3.2)    
 Hindu 2 (2.7) 0    
 Others 1 (1.1) 0    
Education level, n (%)
 No education 1 (1.1) 0 3 16.55 < 0.01**
 Primary 9 (9.5) 12 (38.7)    
 Secondary 75 (78.9) 19 (61.3)    
 Tertiary 10 (10.5) 0    
Employment, n (%) 84 (88.4) 30 (96.8) 1 1.89 0.29
Family history of drug use, n (%) 21 (23.1) 2 (6.5) 1 4.18 0.06
HBV, n (%) 4 (4.2) 0 1 1.35 0.57
HCV, n (%) 43 (45.3) 2 (6.5) 1 15.34 < 0.01**
OTI, mean ± SD
Q scores of drugs usea
  Tobacco 12.69 ± 9.48 15.75 ± 6.21 123 − 3.23 0.001**
  Alcohol 0.01 ± 0.21 0 123 − 0.79 0.43
  Benzodiazepine 0.02 ± 0.10 0.0007 ± 0.004 123 − 1.14 0.89
  Marijuana 0.0005 ± 0.004 0 123 − 0.85 0.39
  Amphetamines 0.002 ± 0.01 0 123 − 1.41 0.16
  Heroin 0.014 ± 0.104 0 123 − 1.41 0.16
HIV risk-taking 5.16 ± 2.81 5.23 ± 2.61 123 − 0.34 0.73
Criminality 0 0   
Social functioninga 5.71 ± 5.34 1.65 ± 2.56 123 − 4.43 0.001**
Healtha 0.46 ± 0.80 0.10 ± 0.31 123 − 2.65 0.008**
M.I.N.I. psychiatric disorder(s), n (%) 15 (15.8) 4 (12.9) 5 8.05 0.153
 Current MDD 1 (0.8) 0 1 0.33 1
 Past history of MDD 2 (1.6) 0 1 0.66 1
 Dysthymia 1 (0.8) 0 1 0.33 1
 Panic disorder 1 (0.8) 0 1 0.33 1
 GAD 0 2 (1.6) 1 6.23 0.06
 ASD 12 (12.6) 2 (11.1) 1 0.90 0.515
Total MADRS-BM score, mean ± SD 3.11 ± 4.00 0.57 ± 1.63 103.07 − 4.22 < 0.01**
  1. MMT, methadone maintenance treatment; BMT, buprenorphine maintenance treatment; BMI, body mass index; HBV, hepatitis B; HCV, hepatitis C; OTI, Opioid Treatment Index; M.I.N.I., Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview; MDD, major depressive disorder; GAD, Generalized anxiety disorder; ASD, antisocial disorder; MADRS-BM, Malay version of self-rated Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale; df, degrees of freedom; SD, standard deviation; t, t-test; χ2, Chi square test; Z, z-test
  2. p < 0.05, **p < 0.01
  3. aBased on Mann–Whitney test