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Table 2 Associations between PHQ-9 scores and study variables

From: Associations between estradiol and testosterone and depressive symptom scores of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in ovariectomized women: a population-based analysis of NHANES data

Variables Univariate Multivariate
ß 95% CI P value ß 95% CI P value
Demographics
 Age
   <  = 60 REF REF REF
   > 60 − 1.113 (− 2.701, 0.475) 0.163
 Poverty income ratioa
  Not poor Ref Ref Ref
  Poor 2.189 (− 0.321, 4.699) 0.085
 Education level
  Below high school Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  High school or above − 2.189 (− 4.370, -0.009) 0.049 − 2.150 (− 5.709, 1.409) 0.227
 Married/live with partner
  No Ref Ref Ref
  Yes − 0.213 (− 1.391, 0.965) 0.715
 Serum estradiol, pg/ml − 0.003 (− 0.011, 0.004) 0.378 0.014 (0.001, 0.028) 0.040
 Serum testosterone, ng/dL − 0.021 (− 0.034, − 0.008) 0.003 − 0.033 (− 0.048, − 0.018)  < 0.001
 History of estrogen use
  No Ref Ref Ref
  Yes 1.096 (-0.198, 2.390) 0.094
 Duration of estrogen use (years) − 0.104 (− 0.148, -0.060)  < 0.001 − 0.110 (− 0.147, − 0.072)  < 0.001
Comorbidities
 Diabetes
  No Ref Ref Ref
  Yes 1.641 (− 0.041, 3.322) 0.055
 CVD
  No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Yes 3.093 (1.552, 4.634)  < 0.001 0.684 (− 1.063, 2.431) 0.430
 Cancer history
  No Ref Ref Ref
  Yes 0.165 (− 0.976, 1.307) 0.769
 Chronic respiratory tract disease
  No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Yes 2.754 (0.934, 4.575) 0.004 1.254 (− 0.604, 3.113) 0.178
 Arthritis
  No Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
  Yes 2.024 (0.994, 3.053)  < 0.001 0.949 (− 0.335, 2.233) 0.141
  1. Significant values are shown in italic (p < 0.05)