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Table 3 Associations between PHQ-9 scores, serum estradiol and testosterone by age and history of estrogen use

From: Associations between estradiol and testosterone and depressive symptom scores of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 in ovariectomized women: a population-based analysis of NHANES data

Term   PHQ-9 score
ß 95% CI P value
Serum estradiol, pg/ml
 Agea  <  = 60 (n = 166) 0.015 (− 0.054, 0.084) 0.663
 > 60 (n = 382) 0.007 (− 0.009, 0.022) 0.383
 History of estrogen useb No (n = 18) 0.013 (− 0.004, 0.031) 0.136
Yes (n = 267) 0.014 (0.001, 0.027) 0.036
Serum testosterone, ng/dL
 Agea  <  = 60 (n = 166) − 0.057 (− 0.076, − 0.038)  < 0.001
 > 60 (n = 382) − 0.004 (− 0.052, 0.045) 0.876
 History of estrogen useb No (n = 18) − 0.186 (− 0.331, − 0.040) 0.014
Yes (n = 267) − 0.028 (− 0.042, − 0.014)  < 0.001
  1. Significant values are shown in italic (p < 0.05)
  2. aAdjusted for education level, serum estradiol (pg/ml), serum testosterone (ng/dL), estrogen use duration (years), CVD chronic respiratory tract disease, arthritis
  3. bAdjusted for education level, serum estradiol (pg/ml), serum testosterone (ng/dL), CVD chronic respiratory tract disease, arthritis