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Table 1 Major characteristics of studies on the prevalence of perinatal depression

From: Prevalence of perinatal depression among Japanese men: a meta-analysis

Author, year Design Sex Measure Cutoff Time classification for moderation analysis Cases Sample size Prevalence %
Enya 2018 Longitudinal study Men EPDS 8/9 Within 1 month postpartum 8 218 3.7
Enya 2018 Longitudinal study Women EPDS 8/9 Within 1 month postpartum 38 306 12.4
Fujita2014 Cross-sectional Men EPDS 7/8 3–6 months postpartum 103 726 14.2
Fujita2014 Cross-sectional Women EPDS 8/9 3–6 months postpartum 73 726 10.1
Fukuoka 2016 Cross-sectional Men CES-D 15/16 Within 1 month postpartum 6 44 13.6
Fukuoka 2016 Cross-sectional Women CES-D 15/16 Within 1 month postpartum 7 44 15.9
Hagino 2006 Baseline data Women SDS 42/43 Prenatal period 17 53 32.1
Hagino 2006 Baseline data Men SDS 39/40 Prenatal period 8 53 15.1
Hamazaki 2017 Cohort study Women K6 12/13 Prenatal period 2527 75,139 3.4
Hamazaki 2017 Cohort study Men K6 12/13 Prenatal period 776 41,506 1.9
Higai 2008 Cross-sectional Men EPDS 8/9 Within 1 month postpartum 22 166 13.3
Iwafuji 2007 Longitudinal study Men CES-D 15/16 6–12 months postpartum 25 129 19.4
Iwafuji 2007 Longitudinal study Women CES-D 15/16 6–12 months postpartum 20 129 15.5
Iwafuji 2007 Longitudinal study Men CES-D 15/16 3–6 months postpartum 21 129 16.3
Iwafuji 2007 Longitudinal study Women CES-D 15/16 3–6 months postpartum 13 129 10.1
Iwafuji 2007 Longitudinal study Men CES-D 15/16 Prenatal period 30 217 13.8
Iwafuji 2007 Longitudinal study Women CES-D 15/16 Prenatal period 47 228 20.6
Konishi 2016 Cross-sectional Men K6 4/5 Prenatal period 14 136 10.3
Nishigori 2016 Cohort study Men K6 12/13 6–12 months postpartum 48 1470 3.3
Nishigori 2016 Cohort study Men EPDS 7/8 3–6 months postpartum 157 1370 11.5
Nishigori 2016 Cohort study Men EPDS 7/8 Within 1 month postpartum 122 1064 11.5
Nishimura 2010 Cross-sectional Men EPDS 7/8 Within 1 month postpartum 17 146 11.6
Nishimura 2010 Cross-sectional Women EPDS 8/9 Within 1 month postpartum 50 178 28.1
Nishimura 2015 Cross-sectional Men EPDS 7/8 3–6 months postpartum 110 807 13.6
Nishimura 2015 Cross-sectional Women EPDS 8/9 3–6 months postpartum 83 807 10.3
Suto 2016 Longitudinal study Men EPDS 7/8 1–3 months postpartum 17 195 8.7
Suto 2016 Longitudinal study Men EPDS 7/8 Within 1 month postpartum 18 207 8.7
Takagi 2017 Longitudinal study Men CES-D 15/16 Within 1 month postpartum 3 42 7.1
Takagi 2017 Longitudinal study Men CES-D 15/16 Prenatal period 5 42 11.9
Takehara 2017 Longitudinal study Men EPDS 7/8 1–3 months postpartum 18 209 8.6
Takehara 2017 Longitudinal study Men EPDS 7/8 Within 1 month postpartum 18 228 7.9
Takehara 2017 Longitudinal study Men EPDS 7/8 Prenatal period 26 270 9.6
Watabe 2016 Cross-sectional Men EPDS 8/9 Prenatal period 5 73 6.8