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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants

From: Association between personal values in adolescence and mental health and well-being in adulthood: a cross-cultural study of working populations in Japan and the United States

 Japan (N = 516)US (N = 516)p for difference
N (%)N (%)
Gender (male)260 (50.4)258 (50.0)
Age range (years)
 30–34129 (25.0)132 (25.6) 
 35–39129 (25.0)128 (24.8) 
 40–44129 (25.0)128 (24.8) 
 45–49129 (25.0)128 (24.8) 
Ethnicity (US only)
 European Americans (white)358 (69.4) 
 African Americans24 (4.7) 
 Hispanic and Latinx Americans47 (9.1) 
 Asian Americans38 (7.4) 
 Native Americans30 (5.8) 
 Others19 (3.7) 
Educational status
 Junior high/middle/high school157 (30.4)46 (8.9)< 0.001
 College/vocational school127 (24.6)72 (14.0) 
 University/graduate school221 (42.8)388 (75.2) 
 Others/refusal to respond11 (2.1)10 (2.0) 
Employment status
 Regular/full-time293 (56.8)378 (73.3)< 0.001
 Part-time133 (25.7)71 (13.8) 
 Contract/dispatched50 (9.7)39 (7.6) 
 Freelancer34 (6.6)12 (2.3) 
 Others6 (1.2)16 (3.1) 
Shift type0.004
 Day-time shift450 (87.2)412 (79.8) 
 Rotation-shift55 (10.6)81 (15.7) 
 Night-shift11 (2.1)23 (4.5) 
Occupation< 0.001
 Managerial41 (7.9)142 (27.5) 
 Professional/technical105 (20.3)221 (42.8) 
 Clerical162 (31.4)45 (8.7) 
 Sales/services73 (14.1)19 (3.7) 
 Transport14 (2.7)7 (1.4) 
 Production77 (14.9)12 (2.3) 
 Agriculture/forestry/fisheries5 (1.0)0 (0.0) 
 Others39 (7.6)35 (6.8)