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Table 2 Study population methodology

From: Systematic review of gut microbiota and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

No. Study Genetic analysis Characteristic of population
Medical history Antibiotic usage Probiotic/prebiotic usage ADHD medication Dietary patterns
1. Aarts et al. [12] 16S rRNA gene sequencing using Titanium sequencing chemistry No information No information No information No information No information
Region: V3–V4
Pipeline analysis: QIIME ver 1.2
Database: ENA
2. Jiang et al. [9] 16s rRNA gene pyrosequencing using Illumina MiSeq platform with TruSeqTM DNA Sample Prep Kit Excluded sample with digestive symptoms, depressive and anxiety symptoms, obesity, atopic diseases (allergic rhinitis, asthma, eczema), and other severe diseases 2 months prior to samples collection No use of antibiotics 2 months prior to samples collection No use of probiotic/prebiotic 2 months prior to samples collection No history of ADHD medication Excluded vegetarian and non-vegetarian diet (using questionnaire filled by parents)
Region: V3–V4
Pipeline analysis: QIIME
3. Prehn-Kristensen et al. [14] DNA amplification on primer 27F-338R using Illumina Miseq No information No information No information 10 samples of ADHD had been taking ADHD medication for more than a year The participants took notes on their food intake for fast food, meat/sausage/cold cuts, fruits/vegetables, and yoghurt/dairy products (using 4-point scales)
Region: V1–V2
Pipeline analysis: Mothur
4. Wang et al. [10] 16S rRNA gene sequencing Excluded samples with history of neuropsychiatry disorder or any major diseases No recent use of antibiotic No recent use of antibiotic No history of ADHD medication Excluded vegetarian diet (using FFQ)
Region: V3–V4
5. Wan. et al. [11] Shotgun metagenomic sequencing using Illumina Novaseq platform Excluded samples with history of respiratory/digestive infection in a month prior to samples No information No use of probiotic 1 month prior to samples collection No information Excluded vegetarian diet. The participants were asked to maintain their regular dietary patterns for 1
   Pipeline analysis: HUMAnN2 ver 0.11.2      
   Database: Integrated Gene Catalog and KEGG Collection, history of digestive/chronic diseases, BMI < 20 kg/m2, and allergic rhinitis/asthma     Week prior to samples collection (using food diary)
6. Szopinska-Tokov. et al. [13] 16s rRNA gene sequencing No information No recent use of antibiotic No recent use of probiotic There were history of ADHD medication No information
Region: 27F-DegS-338RI-II
Pipeline analysis: NG-Tax 16s rRNA
Database: SILVA
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