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Table 3 Independently associated factors with psychological distress among the Ethiopian population during COVID-19 pandemic, 2020

From: Psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia: an online cross-sectional study to identify the need for equal attention of intervention

Variable COR 95% CI p-value AOR 95% CI p-value
Age groups       
 18–24
 25–29
 30–34
 35–39
 40–44
 45–49
 50 and above
1.34
3.13
2.69
2.62
2.91
2.46
1
0.42–4.33
1.18–8.32
1.02–7.06
0.96–7.10
1.02–8.32
0.79–7.69
0.623
0.022
0.045
0.059
0.046
0.120
1.17
3.21
3.31
3.42
4.27
3.17
1
0.28–4.82
1.03–10.00
1.10–10.01
1.12–10.41
1.35–13.56
0.90–11.18
0.826
0.045*
0.034*
0.030*
0.014*
0.072
Sex       
 Male
 Female
0.93
1
0.58–1.48 0.755 0. 77
1
0.45–1.31 0. 342
Educational qualification       
 Diploma
 BSc/BA
 MSc/MA
 MD-GP
 MD-resident
 Ph.D
 MD-specialist
1.10
2.38
1.59
1.55
1.29
1.60
1
0.31–3.92
0.99–5.72
0.69–3.68
0.58–4.18
0.43–3.85
0.63–4.07
0.878
0.052
0.277
0.382
0.653
0.327
1.89
2.11
1.36
1.47
1.20
1.79
1
0.43–8.32
0.76–5.85
0.52–3.52
0.46–4.65
0.34–4.28
0.60–5.33
0.398
0.152
0.528
0.514
0.773
0.295
Occupation       
 Student
 No job
 Self and private employed
 Health workers
 University employed
0.77
0.79
1.43
1.23
1
0.41–1.42
0.22–2.86
0.94–2.18
0.86–1.77
0.398
0.723
0.096
0.261
0.96
0.78
1.22
0.99
1
0.42–2.20
0.18–3.43
0.73–2.06
0.61–1.60
0.925
0.743
0.447
0.957
Current place of residence       
 District town
 Zonal town
 Regional town
 Administrative city
1
0.70
0.67
0.74
0.43–1.14
0.38–1.18
0.42–1.30
0.157
0.163
0.290
1
0.82
0.79
0.93
0.46–1.45
0.40–1.56
0.48–1.78
0.495
0.499
0.822
Getting information from social media       
 No
 Yes
1
1.31
0.98–1.77 0.070 1
1.42
1.02–1.99 0.039*
Getting information from health care workers       
 No
 Yes
0.66
1
0.45–0.99 0.044 0.71 0.45–1.12 0.146
I am confident that I can wash my hands frequently with soap and water       
 Strongly disagree
 Disagree
 Neither agree or disagree
 Agree
 Strongly agree
0.61
4.57
1.70
1.79
1
0.07–5.00
2.07–10.11
0.87–3.31
1.30–2.46
0.642
0.001
0.120
0.001
0.19
4.17
1.56
1.43
0.01–5.08
1.43–12.15
0.65–3.79
0.91–2.24
0.321
0.009*
0.319
0.117
Have the resource (water, soap) to wash my hands       
 Strongly disagree
 Disagree
 Neither agree or disagree
 Agree
 Strongly agree
2.30
3.51
1.36
1.17
1
1.07–4.94
1.99–6.21
0.61–3.05
0.84–1.63
0.033
0.001
0.451
0.343
1.45
2.62
0.98
1.20
1
0.53–3.94
1.20–5.70
0.39–2.47
0.76–1.88
0.466
0.015*
0.962
0.430
Confident that I can stay at home easily to prevent COVID-19       
 Strongly disagree
 Disagree
 Neither agree or disagree
 Agree
 Strongly agree
1.94
1.05
0.95
1.13
1
1.14–3.32
0.65–1.68
0.55–1.63
0.73–1.75
0.015
0.854
0.852
0.577
1.50
0.73
0.71
0.99
1
0.71–3.17
0.39–1.36
0.36–1.39
0.57–1.70
0.283
0.326
0.316
0.958
Confident that I can avoid crowed places and close contact       
 Strongly disagree
 Disagree
 Neither agree or disagree
 Agree
 Strongly agree
1.54
1.36
1.26
1.10
1
0.64–3.73
0.77–2.40
0.75–2.13
0.78–1.56
0.339
0.291
0.382
0.578
0.91
0.76
1.14
1.05
1
0.28–2.96
0.34–1.69
0.56–2.32
0.65–1.71
0.879
0.500
0.711
0.843
Always cover cough using the bend of my elbow       
 Strongly disagree
 Disagree
 Neither agree or disagree
 Agree
 Strongly agree
2.20
1.71
1.38
0.92
1
0.48–10.06
0.85–3.47
0.72–2.64
0.66–1.27
0.308
0.135
0.326
0.604
0.98
1.11
1.26
1.07
1
0.09–10.69
0.41–2.99
0.52–3.05
0.65–1.76
0.985
0.837
0.606
0.778
Avoid touching my eyes nose and mouth to prevent infection of COVID-19       
 Strongly disagree
 Disagree
 Neither agree or disagree
 Agree
 Strongly agree
3.92
1.04
0.95
0.89
1
1.21–12.72
0.48–2.24
0.54–1.66
0.64–1.24
0.023
0.928
0.851
0.493
3.34
0.76
0.75
0.75
0.49–22.56
0.27–2.10
0.33–1.70
0.44–1.27
0.217
0.594
0.494
0.281
Maintain at least 2-m distance between myself and any other individuals       
 Strongly disagree
 Disagree
 Neither agree or disagree
 Agree
 Strongly agree
1.36
1.16
1.43
0.91
1
0.45–4.06
0.67–2.02
0.86–2.36
0.64–1.31
0.587
0.585
0.165
0.629
0.73
0.66
1.28
0.79
1
0.16–3.33
0.31–1.41
0.66–2.49
0.48–1.32
0.684
0.287
0.470
0.374
Believing that COVID-19 is extremely harmful       
 Strongly disagree
 Disagree
 Neither agree or disagree
 Agree
 Strongly agree
1.18
0.43
0.83
0.71
1
0.66–2.11
0.22–0.85
0.44–1.55
0.51–0.99
0.571
0.015
0.552
0.043
1.38
0.55
0.70
0.70
1
0.71–2.68
0.26–1.14
0.34–1.42
0.48–1.02
0.346
0.107
0.323
0.064
Have the skill to follow recommended handwashing practices to prevent COVID-19 infection       
 Strongly disagree
 Disagree
 Neither agree or disagree
 Agree
 Strongly agree
1.03
8.01
2.29
1.32
1
0.28–3.81
2.04–31.49
0.63–8.25
0.98–1.79
0.964
0.003
0.205
0.070
0.81
5.39
2.19
1.14
1
0.06–10.47
1.17–24.87
0.45–10.61
0.72–1.81
0.873
0.031*
0.331
0.569
  1. Statistically significant values were shown in asterisk (*) at p-value less than 0.05