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Table 3 Comparison between respondents with and without mild-to-severe depression with regards to the WHOQOL-BREF domain scores

From: Depression level and coping responses toward the movement control order and its impact on quality of life in the Malaysian community during the COVID-19 pandemic: a web-based cross-sectional study

The WHOQOL-BREF domains, mean ± SD With mild-to-severe depression Without depression Mean difference Adjusted mean differencea
(95% CI)
p value
Physical health 13.63 ± 2.66 16.20 ± 2.11 − 2.57 − 2.12
(− 2.60, − 1.64)
 < 0.001
Psychological 12.50 ± 2.79 16.10 ± 2.14 − 3.60 − 2.71
(− 3.19, − 2.23)
 < 0.001
Social relationships 12.17 ± 3.49 15.28 ± 2.93 − 3.11 − 2.26
(− 2.91, − 1.61)
 < 0.001
Environment 14.50 ± 2.39 16.21 ± 2.14 − 1.71 − 1.17
(− 1.64, − 0.71)
 < 0.001
  1. aAdjusted for age = 35.75, marital status = 0.47, zone = 0.75, household income = 0.57, avoidant = 22.08, and religion = 5.70