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Table 2 Means, standard deviations, and correlations (N = 1266)

From: The relationship between test anxiety and emotion regulation: the mediating effect of psychological resilience

Variable Psychological resilience Resilience Strength Optimism Emotion regulation Cognitive reappraisal Expressive suppression Test anxiety
Total 58.89 ± 15.28 29.68 ± 8.56 20.14 ± 5.01 9.07 ± 2.70 64.56 ± 11.92 34.30 ± 6.82 30.26 ± 6.82 16.75 ± 7.62
Gender
 Male 60.96 ± 17.58 30.99 ± 9.85 20.64 ± 5.71 9.33 ± 2.97 65.52 ± 13.93 33.97 ± 7.72 31.55 ± 7.63 15.77 ± 7.74
 Female 57.77 ± 13.76 28.97 ± 7.68 19.86 ± 4.56 8.93 ± 2.53 64.03 ± 10.63 33.48 ± 6.28 29.55 ± 7.61 17.27 ± 7.51
 T 3.33** 3.75** 2.49* 2.39* 1.97* − 1.184 4.66** − 3.36**
Grade
 First year 59.87 ± 15.31 30.19 ± 8.61 20.45 ± 4.97 9.22 ± 2.69 64.42 ± 11.99 34.22 ± 6.88 30.20 ± 7.25 16.61 ± 7.61
 Second-year 59.59 ± 16.70 30.36 ± 9.09 20.10 ± 5.47 9.13 ± 2.92 64.91 ± 12.54 34.26 ± 6.88 30.65 ± 7.17 16.74 ± 7.74
 Third year 56.26 ± 13.83 28.10 ± 7.83 19.43 ± 4.69 8.73 ± 2.52 64.54 ± 11.45 34.35 ± 6.69 30.19 ± 6.61 17.02 ± 7.74
 F 3.17* 3.80** 2.38* 1.18 0.26 0.14 0.81 0.17
Academic evaluation
 Excellent 61.89 ± 13.41 31.22 ± 7.59 21.26 ± 4.48 9.40 ± 2.46 65.89 ± 11.08 35.28 ± 6.21 30.61 ± 6.81 15.49 ± 6.67
 Moderate 60.22 ± 14.41 30.37 ± 8.14 20.56 ± 4.61 9.29 ± 2.67 64.76 ± 11.46 34.55 ± 6.57 30.21 ± 7.00 16.51 ± 7.61
 Lower–moderate 56.40 ± 14.73 28.37 ± 8.23 19.27 ± 4.90 8.77 ± 2.58 63.46 ± 11.67 33.55 ± 6.96 29.91 ± 6.61 16.85 ± 7.94
 Poor 52.92 ± 19.11 26.64 ± 10.62 18.00 ± 6.17 8.28 ± 3.15 62.92 ± 14.47 32.75 ± 8.01 30.17 ± 8.12 19.64 ± 8.22
 F 17.93** 15.01** 21.73** 9.22** 3.37* 6.86** 0.51 12.48**
Single-child family
 Yes 59.37 ± 16.45 29.94 ± 9.14 20.19 ± 5.35 9.24 ± 2.85 64.01 ± 12.75 33.49 ± 7.16 30.52 ± 7.41 17.12 ± 7.88
 No 58.75 ± 14.92 29.61 ± 8.37 20.12 ± 4.90 9.02 ± 2.65 64.73 ± 11.65 34.54 ± 6.70 30.18 ± 6.93 16.63 ± 7.54
 T 0.58 0.58 0.21 1.21 − 0.90 − 2.32* 0.72 0.95
Part-time jobs
 Yes 60.71 ± 15.44 30.84 ± 8.72 20.52 ± 5.02 9.35 ± 2.75 66.00 ± 12.75 34.90 ± 6.97 31.10 ± 7.30 16.37 ± 7.97
 No 58.24 ± 15.18 29.26 ± 8.46 20.00 ± 5.00 8.98 ± 2.68 64.04 ± 11.56 34.08 ± 6.76 29.95 ± 6.93 16.88 ± 7.49
 T 2.54* 2.91** 1.62 2.18* 2.59* 1.88 2.56* − 1.05
Members of the club
 Yes 59.26 ± 14.79 29.86 ± 8.26 20.27 ± 4.88 9.12 ± 2.65 64.68 ± 11.59 34.46 ± 6.67 30.22 ± 6.94 16.86 ± 7.55
 No 57.00 ± 17.53 28.74 ± 9.91 19.42 ± 5.60 8.84 ± 2.93 63.92 ± 13.49 33.47 ± 7.53 30.45 ± 7.59 16.17 ± 7.97
 T 1.73 1.53 2.03* 1.34 0.83 1.90 − 0.43 1.18
Birthplace
 City 59.32 ± 15.94 29.86 ± 8.84 20.17 ± 5.23 9.29 ± 2.82 64.74 ± 12.27 34.09 ± 6.78 30.66 ± 7.34 17.41 ± 7.87
 Country 58.63 ± 14.87 29.57 ± 8.38 20.12 ± 4.87 8.94 ± 2.62 64.44 ± 11.70 34.43 ± 6.85 30.01 ± 6.85 16.33 ± 7.44
 T 0.78 0.57 0.18 2.23* 0.44 − 0.87 1.58 2.46*
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01