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Influence of anxiety and depression on nicotine dependence


The aim of our study was to assess nicotine dependence in 18-years-old high school students, as well as to investigate and correlation between nicotine dependence, on the one hand, and anxiety (trait-state anxiety) and depression, on the other.

Material and Methods

Using the technique of stratified sampling, 112 high school students, aged 18 years old and residing the region of Pireus, were recruited. These subjects filled up the following scales: STAI questionnaire on anxiety, CES-D on depression and Fagestrom scale on nicotine dependence, as well as information concerning their height and body weight. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 10.0 software.


Of the aforementioned sample, 58% defined themselves as "smokers". Mean score on Fagestrom nicotine dependence scale (1=min, 9=max) was 4.66 (SD 1.46), while of those self-defined as "smokers", a mere 11.7% scored below 4 on Fagerstrom scale, that is they were not dependent on nicotine. Mean score in trait anxiery subscale of the STAI (53.09 ± 3.32) was significantly higher in smokers (p < 0.001), comparing to non-smokers (48.45 ± 3.96). Statistically significant difference between smokers and non-smokers was also demonstrated for state anxiety (51.15 ± 3.47 compared to 48.04 ± 4.18, p = 0.001).

On the contrary, no statistically significant difference was noted in CES-D scores (p = 0.901).


The degree of nicotine dependence correlates well to trait anxiety and, to a lesser extent, to state anxiety, while nicotine dependence seems to be independent of depression.

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Kalaitzi, C., Mariolis, A., Zeibekis, D. et al. Influence of anxiety and depression on nicotine dependence. Ann Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2 (Suppl 1), S117 (2003).

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