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A 2-year follow-up study of cigarette smoking and risk of dementia


The report focused on investigating the relationship between cigarette smoking and dementia in elderly people through prospective studies.

Materials and methods

We did a 2-year follow-up study of elderly people. A total of 2820 participants aged 60 years old and over from six communities of Chongqing agreed to take part. Dementia was diagnosed with MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination) and DSM-III-R (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). Participants were classified as never smokers, past smokers, and current smokers. During follow-up, we recorded incident cases of dementia. The association of smoking and dementia was investigated using proportional hazards regression analysis.


A total of 121 incident cases of dementia were detected, of which 84 (69%) were Alzheimer's disease, 17 (14%) were vascular dementia, and 21(17%) were other dementia. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (RR = 2.72; 95% CI = 1.63–5.42) and vascular dementia (RR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.53–3.12) adjusting for age, sex, education, blood pressure, and alcohol intake. Compared with light smokers, the adjusted risk of Alzheimer's disease was significantly increased among smokers with a medium level of exposure (RR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.65–5.52), with an even higher risk of Alzheimer's disease in the heavy smoking group (RR = 3.03; 95% CI = 1.25–4.02).


Smoking was associated with the risk of dementia. This study suggests that both smoking status and amount is associated with dementia.


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Open Access This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Deng, J. A 2-year follow-up study of cigarette smoking and risk of dementia. Ann Gen Psychiatry 5 (Suppl 1), S194 (2006).

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