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  • Open Access

Behavioral disturbances and frontotemporal dementia

  • 1
Annals of General Psychiatry20065 (Suppl 1) :S255

  • Published:


  • Dementia
  • Memory Deficit
  • MMSE Score
  • Frontotemporal Dementia
  • Behavioral Disturbance


Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the most frequent cause of presenile dementia next to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it has great impact on family members as it produces profound changes in personality, behavior, and social interaction.

In fact, FTD is usually diagnosed clinically as AD. It is widely appreciated that FTD cases may differ significantly in clinical picture.

An open label non-randomized prospective study of patients with AD and FTD, 1–2 years after disease onset.

Materials and methods

A total of 22 out and inpatients, under 59 years of age, who met ICD-10 criteria for dementia in Alzheimer's or Pick's disease, were included in the study. The clinical diagnostic features dementia and Behavioral and neuropsychiatric features that distinguish FTD from AD (Jeffrey L Cummings, 2003); Cognitive tests and structural neuroimages (CT or MRI); Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); Hutchinski score; The questionnaire the Frontal Behavioral Inventory (Kertesz et al.1997) (FBI), were used in a two year follow up period.


MMSE scores were considerably lower in patients with AD compared with the patients with FTD, Hatchinski score lower of 4 in all patients. The patients in this study who had FTD scored significantly higher than did those with AD in the Frontal Behavior Inventory.

A total score on the questionnaire the FBI above 30 is suggestive of FTD. In lower- scoring groups, patients with AD can be discriminated.


The patients who had FTD scored significantly higher on "the questionnaire the Frontal Behavioral Inventory" than did those with AD, for loss of emotions and insight, apathy, indifference, aspontaneity, logopenia, selfishness, disinhibition, personal neglect, irritability, impulsivity, restlessness, aggression, hyperorality and special food preference, motor and verbal stereotypies. FTD begins with personality and behavioral changes, in contrast to Alzheimer's disease, which begins with memory deficits.

Authors’ Affiliations

Psychiatric Hospital "Skopje", Department of Psychogeriatrics, Skopje, F.Y.R.O.M


  1. Kertesz A: Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms and frontotemporal dementia. International Psychogeriatrics. 2000, 12 (Suppl 1): 183-187. 10.1017/S1041610200007006.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Boccardi M: The MRI pattern of frontal and temporal brain atrophy in frontotemporal dementia. Neurobiology of Aging. 2003, 24: 95-103. 10.1016/S0197-4580(02)00045-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cummings JI: The neuropsychiatry of Alzheimer's Disease and related Dementias. 2003View ArticleGoogle Scholar


© The Author(s) 2006