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Bulgarian version of TEMPS-A


Temperament and character are definitions that describe human individuality. Interactions between temperament and character are sophisticated and they mould personality - phenomenon, which is unique for human beings. Temperament is the “virtual” structure that defines dynamics and speed of psychic processes: The temperament regulates what is announced and the character - what is the meaning. The meaning of life events and knowledge of life are modified by both.

Actuality of modern groupings into temperamental traits is legalized by conception of H. Akiskal that linked temperamental structure and affective disorders.

Materials and methods


Approbation of Bulgarian version of TEMPS-A (Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire).


To investigate healthy population between 17 and 45 years.

To identify specific biological predispositions which are predictors of personality and behavioral deviations.

To identify dynamics of personality and temperamental structure during ontogenesis.

Exclusion criteria

1. Clinical evidence of organic or toxic etiology of brain injury.

2. Mental retardation - mild and severe.

3. Linguistic or some other difficulties in communication that might interfere with adequate clinical assessment.

4. Substance dependence (alcohol and/or other substances) and substance related personal change that can disturb the homogeneity (?) of the group.

5. Delusional disorders, acute or other psychotic disorders.

6. Evidence of individual dysfunction caused by psychiatric disorder, for example psychosis


• TEMPS-A - Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire.

• EPQ - Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.

• Screening IPDE (IPDE-s) - International Personality Disorder Examination - screening Autoquestionnaire.

• MPDO - diagnostic psychological inventory for personality features - A. E. Lichko modification personality diagnostic questionnaire.


One of investigators translated original test and a professional translator who has never seen original text, made back-translation. We received full approval by the author.

523 healthy volunteers between 18-45 years old, take part in the study.

Regarding test-retest (temporal) reliability - test was done again 45 days after first one. Our results demonstrate excellent correlations by test at all and by five dimensions separately.

Analysis of the principal components with a Varimax rotation confirm that from the 110 Bulgarian items of the TEMPS-A we brought out five factors that were interpreted as representing the cyclothymic, depressive, irritable, hyperthymic, and anxious factors.


TEMPS-A showed a good reliability and validity (internal consistency) in a Bulgarian non-clinical population. It gives us a new challenge to understand affective disorders nature and opportunities to measure it.

Such research is in progress.


The study sample was relatively small.

This is a preliminary report from an ongoing study.


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Correspondence to Hristina Martinova.

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Open Access This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Martinova, H., Donchev, T., Petkova, P. et al. Bulgarian version of TEMPS-A. Ann Gen Psychiatry 7, S223 (2008).

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  • Personality Disorder
  • Psychotic Disorder
  • Substance Dependence
  • Professional Translator
  • Delusional Disorder