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Introduction of the term "trauma" in psychiatry
Annals of General Psychiatry volume 9, Article number: S235 (2010)
In 1889 Hermann Oppenheim transposed the surgical term "trauma" into psychology and psychiatry under the term of «traumatic neuroses». Related essays like Erichsen's Bernheim's, Strümpell's, Charcot's, Janet's, Kraft - Ebing's, Moebius's, Prince's, Breuer's and Freud's succeeded in arousing widespread interest in trauma.
Materials and methods
This study reviews the psychiatric literature in nineteen century when the term "trauma" was introduced in psychiatry. For methodological reasons the papers reviewed were divided into six categories: a) referring to shock and to "shell-shock", b) connecting memory with emotions like fear or terror, c) concerning hypnoses and memory disturbances, d) reviews of the hysterical phenomena, e) papers about traumatic paralysis and multiple personalities, and f) clinical studies where traumatic cures including psychoanalysis were described.
Some clinical syndromes like the railway spine, the hysterical paralysis in man and the multiple personality were identified as traumatic syndromes. However the genealogy of trauma is similar to that of hysteria. There are many pairs (suggestion-hypnosis, functional neuroses-ideation, emotions-memory, fantasy-instincts, conscious-unconscious, mnemic symbol-hysterical repetition compulsion, abreaction-fixation, etc) that identified the existence of traumatic power and established the economic model of affect-trauma.
In the first dynamic psychiatry, trauma considered as the psychic process when the intrapsychic balance become unstable due to an affect linked to the traumatic memory.
Ellenberger HF: The Discovery of the Unconscious. 1970, Basic Books, New York, 53-569.
Charcot JM: Clinical Lectures on certain diseases of the nervous system. Lecture VII. On six cases of hysteria in the male subject. Classics in Psychology. Edited by: Shipley T. 1961, Philosophical Library. New York, 370-416.
Leys R: Trauma. A genealogy. 2000, The University of Chicago Press. Chicago & London, 1-119. 153-189
Stewart WA: Psychoanalysis: the first ten years 1888-1898. 1967, The Macmillan Company, NY, 1-115.
Tihs paper is the introduction of the author's doctora thesis: "The meaning of trauma in the beginning of psychoanalysis", Democritus University of Thrace, 2008.
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Efstratiou, S. Introduction of the term "trauma" in psychiatry. Ann Gen Psychiatry 9, S235 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-859X-9-S1-S235
- Clinical Study
- Economic Model
- Clinical Syndrome
- Widespread Interest
- Traumatic Memory