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Table 1 Summary data on prevalence of pica with mental retardation

From: Intestinal obstruction in a mentally retarded patient due to pica

Author Pica definition Method Population setting (N) Prevalence (%)
Matson et al. [7] DSM-IV criteria Psychological and functional assessment Institution (790) 5.7
Applegate et al. [8] Not stated, but not cooccurring with SIB, stereotypy, aggression, or ruminatio Not mention Developmental Center (417) 7.2
McAlpine et al. [9] Eating non-food items and inappropriate food items direct observation and/or review of medical problems Institution (607) 9.2
Tewari et al. [10] Eating non-food items and inappropriate food items Information solicited from senior nursing staff Learning Disability Hospital (246) 10.1
Swift et al. [11] Frequent consumption of non-food and food related substances Survey questionnaire, verbal questioning, and/or review of medical problems Residential Facility (689) 22.1
Danford et al. [2] Frequent consumption of non-food and food related substances Staff interviews and/or direct observation Institution (991) 25.8
Lohiya et al. [12] Not mention Not mention Institution (323; 66) 77 (in 1977) 16.7 (in 1994)
  1. SIB sever impairment battery, DSM diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.