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Table 4 Cognitive function scores across study subgroups

From: Cognitive impairment in manic bipolar patients: important, understated, significant aspects

  Manic subgroup N = 54 Depressive subgroup N = 32 Euthymic subgroup N = 30 Mixed subgroup N = 21 p*
Verbal memory 37 (30–46) 41 (38–47) 45 (39–47) 40 (37–45) <0.0001
Working memory 14 (10–28) 20.5 (10–28) 25 (14–27) 14 (11–20) <0.0001
Psychomotor speed 54 (47–74) 48 (44–58) 58 (54–62) 46 (42–68) <0.0001
Verbal fluency 44.5 (34–67) 34 (30–55) 56 (50–62) 41 (40–46) <0.0001
Attention and speed of information processing 42 (39–58) 41 (39–48) 48 (43–52) 40 (30–44) <0.0001
Executive function/reasoning and problem solving 11.5 (4–18) 14 (11–19) 16 (12–17) 11 (7–15) <0.0001
  1. Values are presented as median (range) for continuous nonparametric data
  2. NS no statistical significant (p ≥ 0.05)
  3. * Kruskal–Wallis test