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Table 2 Effect sizes concerning the various neurocognitive domains during different phases of BD as well as in high-risk relatives (endophenotypes)

From: The neurocognitive functioning in bipolar disorder: a systematic review of data

Domain All phases Acute mania Acute bipolar depression Euthymia Endophenotype
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
 Premorbid IQ Normal     Normal
 Current IQ 0.36–0.70 028–0.47   0.11–0.50 0.20
Psychomotor and mental speed 0.50–0.55    0.52–0.80 0.17–022
Attention 0.64 0.79–0.90 0.80 0.41–0.80 0.18–0.36
Memory
 Working memory 0.60    0.54–1.02  
 Verbal memory
  Immediate 0.43    0.73–0.82 0.33–0.42
  Delayed 0.34 1.05 1.20 0.71–0.85 0.27–0.33
  Verbal learning 0.91 1.43   0.66–0.90 0.28
 Non-Verbal memory
  Immediate 0.26    0.73  
  Delayed 0.51    0.62–0.80 0.13
 Episodic memory     0.62  
Visuospatial function 0.65    022–0.57  
Language/verbal fluency 0.63 0.51–0.59 0.93 0.34–0.90 0.27
Executive function 0.34–0.79 0.64–0.72 0.54-0.75 0.52–0.88 0.24–0.51
Social cognition
 ToM 0.75–0.86     
 Emotion recognition 0.35     
 Emotion decision-making Normal     
  1. The range of values reflects heterogeneity in study samples but also heterogeneity because of the different neuropsychological tools used