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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of subjects (n = 758)

From: Pharmacotherapy and group cognitive behavioral therapy enhance follow-up treatment duration in gambling disorder patients

  No-pharmacotherapy (n = 477) Pharmacotherapy (n = 281) Statistical value p
Demographic characteristics
 Sex (male %) 450 (94.5) 267 (95.0) 0.85a 0.388
 Age 40.40 ± 10.27 38.24 ± 9.23 2.98b 0.003**
 Age of onset 30.74 ± 8.92 28.29 ± 7.15 8.10b <0.001**
 With partner (or married) 307 (63.1) 166 (59.1) 2.11a 0.162
 Education (years) 14.14 ± 2.58 13.93 ± 2.54 1.06b 0.289
 Religion 196 (44.2) 127 (45.2) 0.91a 0.350
Gambling characteristics
 Type of main gambling
  Strategic 245 (51.4) 146 (52.0) 2.21a 0.332
  Nonstrategic 90 (18.9) 42 (14.9)   
  Mixed 142 (29.8) 93 (33.1)   
  Gambling debt at the first visit ($) 130,470 ± 434,212 102,872 ± 187,295 0.96b 0.338
  Big win ($) 250,692 ± 1,241,680 44,351 ± 128,800 1.77b 0.078
  BDI 10.82 ± 10.66 16.89 ± 11.07 −5.26b <0.001**
  BAI 16.75 ± 9.68 22.24 ± 9.96 −5.27b <0.001**
  GSAS 12.88 ± 9.59 19.01 ± 11.55 −5.36b <0.001**
 Intervention
  Group CBT 68 (14.3) 53 (18.9) 2.70a 0.102
  Participation in GA 106 (25.4) 80 (28.5) 3.13a 0.091
  Follow-up duration (months) 5.53 ± 12.37 13.03 ± 20.35 −5.58 <0.001**
  1. BDI Beck Depression Inventory, BAI Beck Anxiety Inventory, GSAS Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale, CBT cognitive behavioral therapy, GA gamblers anonymous
  2. aFischer’s exact test (or Chi-square test): Data are shown as the number of patients (%), statistical value = Pearson’s Chi square
  3. bIndependent t test: Data are shown as mean ± standard deviation, statistical value = t
  4. ** p < 0.01
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