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Table 3 Occupational therapy (n = 29) vs. board games (n = 22): general linear model (significant interaction effects at baseline and after 6 weeks)

From: Antidepressive response of inpatients with major depression to adjuvant occupational therapy: a case–control study

Variable Sub-group GLM Means, differences (pre-post) and effect sizes
Within-subject effects (time) Between-subjects effects (group) Interaction (time × group) Occupational therapy Board game group
F p F p F p M pre (SD) M post (SD) Mpre-Mpost ES M pre (SD) M post (SD) Mpre-Mpost ES
HAMD 19 Total 3.682 0.062 2.500 0.121 4.321 0.044 0.02 (0.13) 0.03 (0.19) 0.12 (0.33) 0.00 (0.00) 0.12 0.71
m 1.814 0.194 3.291 0.085 4.944 0.039 0.00 (0.00) 0.06 (0.25) 0.10 (0.31) 0.00 (0.00) 0.10 0.63
f 1.003 0.331 2.509 0.132 2.509 0.132 0.03 (0.17) 0.00 (0.00) 0.03 0.33 0.14 (0.35) 0.00 (0.00) 0.14 0.78
BDI 15 Total 0.290 0.594 0.060 0.808 5.095 0.030 1.88 (0.70) 1.11 (0.75) 0.77 1.05 1.67 (0.85) 1.25 (0.97) 0.42 0.46
m 1.452 0.245 0.202 0.659 0.928 0.349 1.88 (0.68) 1.06 (0.77) 0.82 1.12 1.65 (0.75) 1.11 (0.93) 0.56 0.67
f 0.025 0.877 0.850 0.373 0.757 0.400 1.89 (0.74) 1.18 (0.75) 0.71 0.95 1.68 (0.95) 1.36 (1.03) 0.32 0.32
BDI 16 Total 0.008 0.930 7.164 0.011 0.555 0.461 1.63 (1.09) 0.81 (0.74) 0.82 0.89 1.90 (1.01) 1.43 (1.17) 0.47 0.43
m 1.205 0.287 7.065 0.016 0.075 0.787 1.50 (1.02) 0.81 (0.66) 0.69 0.82 2.00 (1.08) 1.60 (1.17) 0.40 0.35
f 6.150 0.028 0.002 0.970 6.415 0.025 1.75 (1.14) 0.82 (0.87) 0.93 0.92 1.82 (0.96) 1.27 (1.19) 0.55 0.51
BDI 22 Total 0.002 0.960 0.156 0.695 11.908 0.001 1.52 (1.16) 1.11 (1.12) 0.41 0.36 1.37 (1.20) 1.55 (1.18)
m 0.023 0.882 0.313 0.583 5.642 0.028 1.54 (1.06) 0.94 (0.93) 0.60 0.57 1.30 (1.13) 1.55 (1.13)
f 0.526 0.481 0.775 0.395 0.114 0.741 1.50 (1.26) 1.36 (1.36) 0.14 0.11 1.43 (1.29) 1.55 (1.29)
HAMA 14 Total 0.131 0.720 0.779 0.283 2.412 0.128 1.19 (0.93) 0.38 (0.62) 0.81 1.04 1.07 (0.69) 1.55 (4.64)
m 2.839 0.109 0.489 0.493 6.301 0.022 1.29 (1.12) 0.38 (0.62) 0.91 1.26 0.95 (0.71) 0.64 (0.81) 0.31 0.41
f 0.101 0.755 1.332 0.265 1.424 0.250 1.12 (0.78) 0.38 (0.65) 0.74 1.03 1.18 (0.66) 2.45 (6.53)
Ergo-Asses 3 Total 1.753 0.195 0.172 0.681 6.344 0.017 13.90 (3.51) 10.96 (3.59) 2.94 0.83 12.72 (5.12) 11.90 (5.03) 0.82 0.16
m 1.036 0.329 3.697 0.079 2.245 0.160 14.45 (4.12) 11.92 (4.38) 2.53 0.60 11.94 (5.49) 9.70 (3.53) 2.24 0.50
f 0.667 0.429 3.089 0.102 2.210 0.161 13.50 (3.01) 9.91 (2.21) 3.59 1.38 13.38 (4.81) 14.10 (5.49)
  1. HAMD 19: depersonalization and derealization
  2. BDI 15: loss of energy
  3. BDI 16: disturbed sleep pattern
  4. BDI 22: loss of sexual interest
  5. HAMA 14: anxious behavior during interview
  6. Ergo-Assess 3: basic work skills
  7. GLM general linear model (controlled for age, IQ, axis-I/II comorbidity, number of psychoactive drugs and number of antidepressants), stratified for gender (m males, f females), M pre/post mean pre/post, SD standard deviation, Mpre-Mpost difference between pre- and post-mean, ES effect size (Cohen’s d). HAMD Hamilton Depression Scale, BDI Beck Depression Inventory, HAMA Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Ergo-Assess™ German Occupational Therapy Assessment