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Table 1 Insomnia severity in individuals with and without pain and the categories of insomnia related to age, pain intensity, pain spreading, anxiety, and depression

From: Insomnia severity and its relationship with demographics, pain features, anxiety, and depression in older adults with and without pain: cross-sectional population-based results from the PainS65+ cohort

Subgroup of ISI All No clinically significant insomnia (NCSI) Sub-threshold insomnia (S-TI) Moderate clinical insomnia (MCI) Severe clinical insomnia (SCl) Statistics (ANOVA) Post hoc comparisons (Dunnett t)a
Variables Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD p value S-TI vs NCSI MCI vs NCSI SCl vs NCSI
a. Total sample (n = 6205)
 Age (years) 76.3 ± 7.4 76.5 ± 7.2 76.0 ± 7.4 76.5 ± 7.6 78.1 ± 8.3 0.175 NA NA NA
 Pain intensity 4.2 ± 2.6 3.2 ± 2.6 4.5 ± 2.4 5.3 ± 2.5 6.0 ± 2.7 <0.001 *** *** ***
 Pain spreading 5.6 ± 5.4 4.4 ± 4.6 5.3 ± 4.7 7.7 ± 7.1 7.4 ± 7.1 <0.001 * *** ***
 GWBS-anxiety 6.4 ± 4.5 4.1 ± 3.7 6.6 ± 4.3 9.7 ± 5.2 12.8 ± 5.9 <0.001 *** *** ***
 GWBS-depression 5.8 ± 3.8 4.1 ± 3.2 5.9 ± 3.3 8.2 ± 3.9 10.5 ± 4.8 <0.001 *** *** ***
b. Chronic pain (n = 2790)
 Age (years) 76.2 ± 7.5 76.6 ± 7.6 75.6 ± 7.2 76.9 ± 7.8 78.7 ± 7.6 0.015 ns ns **
 Pain intensity 5.1 ± 2.1 4.4 ± 2.1 5.1 ± 1.9 5.7 ± 2.2 6.5 ± 2.48 <0.001 *** *** ***
 Pain spreading 6.2 ± 5.6 5.1 ± 4.9 5.8 ± 4.8 8.3 ± 7.2 8.0 ± 7.2 <0.001 ns *** ***
 GWBS-anxiety 7.4 ± 4.9 5.0 ± 4.1 7.2 ± 4.3 10.0 ± 5.1 13.5 ± 6.7 <0.001 *** *** ***
 GWBS-depression 6.3 ± 3.8 4.8 ± 3.4 6.1 ± 3.3 8.2 ± 3.8 10.7 ± 5.1 <0.001 *** *** ***
c. Subacute pain (n = 510)
 Age (years) 75.6 ± 6.9 75.2 ± 6.9 75.4 ± 6.8 76.3 ± 7.3 76.0 ± 6.9 0.890 NA NA NA
 Pain intensity 4.4 ± 1.8 4.1 ± 1.6 4.4 ± 1.9 4.8 ± 1.8 5.5 ± 0.7 0.304 NA NA NA
 Pain spreading 3.1 ± 2.1 2.9 ± 2.1 3.1 ± 2.2 3.4 ± 2.2 2.0 ± 0.0 0.683 NA NA NA
 GWBS-anxiety 6.5 ± 4.8 4.4 ± 3.5 6.6 ± 4.4 10.0 ± 5.3 13.7 ± 2.5 <0.001 ** *** ***
 GWBS-depression 5.8 ± 3.7 4.3 ± 3.1 5.7 ± 3.4 8.5 ± 3.7 10.0 ± 3.6 <0.001 * *** ***
d. No pain (n = 2905)
 Age (years) 75.9 ± 7.6 76.5 ± 6.9 76.4 ± 7.8 75.6 ± 7.4 77.1 ± 10.7 0.911 NA NA NA
 Pain intensity 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 NA NA NA NA
 Pain spreading 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 0.0 ± 0.0 NA NA NA NA
 GWBS-anxiety 4.8 ± 4.2 3.3 ± 3.3 5.3 ± 4.1 8.6 ± 4.8 10.9 ± 4.3 <0.001 *** *** ***
 GWBS-depression 4.7 ± 3.6 3.4 ± 2.9 5.2 ± 3.3 7.7 ± 4.2 9.9 ± 4.2 <0.001 *** *** ***
  1. NCSI no clinically significant insomnia, S-TI sub-threshold insomnia, MCI moderate clinical insomnia, SCl severe clinical insomnia, ISI Insomnia Severity Index, GWBS general well-being schedule, NA not applicable
  2. aDunnett t tests treat one group as a control (No clinically significant insomnia as control group), and compare all other groups against it; ns non-significant at p < 0.05; NA not applicable
  3. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001