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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and drug addiction history of 85 heroin-dependent patients, comprising 25 with chronic psychosis (PSY-HUD) and 60 without Axis I psychiatric comorbidity (HUD)

From: The long-term outcome of patients with heroin use disorder/dual disorder (chronic psychosis) after admission to enhanced methadone maintenance

  HUD patients N = 60 PSY-HUD patients N = 25 t/chi P
Age (M ± s) 30.08 ± 5.9 30.64 ± 7.4 − 0.36 0.715
Gender: male [N (%)] 46 (76.2) 15 (60.0) 2.41 0.185
Marital status: single [N (%)] 47 (79.7) 16 (64.0) 2.29 0.169
Education: < 8 years [N (%)] 12 (21.1) 11 (44.0) 4.53 0.033
Work [N (%)]
 White collar 12 (20.7) 8 (32.0)   
 Blue collar 18 (31.0) 10 (40.0)   
 Unemployed 28 (48.3) 7 (28.0) 3.04 0.218
CGI severity of illnessa (M ± s) 5.54 ± 0.6 5.52 ± 0.7 0.12 0.900
GAF index from DSM-IV (M ± s) 44.75 ± 7.2 40.64 ± 10.6 2.06 0.042
1-Presence of physical concerns [N (%)] 48 (80.0) 14 (56.0) 5.15 0.023
2-Presence of altered mental status [N (%)] 54 (90.0) 25 (100.0) 2.69 0.101
3-Work concerns [N (%)] 42 (70.0) 14 (56.0) 1.53 0.215
4-Household concerns [N (%)] 14 (23.3) 9 (36.0) 1.43 0.231
5-Romantic concerns [N (%)] 24 (40.0) 13 (52.0) 1.03 0.309
6-Social/leisure concerns [N (%)] 33 (55.0) 12 (48.0) 0.34 0.556
7-Legal concerns [N (%)] 29 (48.3) 2 (8.0) 12.39 < 0.001
8-Polyabuse (more than 3) [N (%)] 45 (75.0) 11 (44.0) 7.454 0.006
9-Past treated [N (%)] 50 (83.3) 7 (28.0) 24.46 < 0.001
10-Combined treated [N (%)] 60 (100.0) 15 (60.0) 27.20 < 0.001
‘Daily or more’ heroin intake [N (%)] 55 (91.7) 14 (73.7) 4.22 0.040
Stable modality of use [N (%)] 21 (35.0) 12 (57.1) 3.15 0.076
Stage 3 of heroin addiction [N (%)] 47 (78.3) 5 (26.3) 17.37 < 0.001
Age at first use of heroin (M ± s) 18.22 ± 3.0 21.21 ± 5.0 − 3.16 0.002
HUD: age at onset (M ± s) 20.10 ± 3.9 24.75 ± 5.9 − 4.19 < 0.001
Dependence duration (years) (M ± s) 9.51 ± 6.1 4.15 ± 3.8 3.79 < 0.001
Age at first treatment (M ± s) 28.47 ± 6.8 30.64 ± 7.4 − 1.30 0.195
  1. aBetween 1 = normal and 7 = extremely ill